Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1995

Volume 9

Contents:

Effects of Isolated Versus Social Physical Activity on Creativity

Lisa M. Puma and Charles A. Waehler

The University of Akron

Physical activity, which has been shown by others (Gondola, 1985, 1987; Tuckman & Hinkle, 1986) as having a positive effect on creativity, was performed with others (social) or in isolation (non-social) in order to investigate the effects of physical activity and social contact on creativity. Non-physical activity groups (n = 2) were also compared. Creativity was assessed both before and after each activity. The hypotheses stating that elements of social contact and exercise would lead to a greater increase in creativity than lack of social contact and exercise were not supported. The results of this study are discusses in terms of overturning other researches’ connection between physical activity and creativity.

Cultural Diversity and Self Monitoring Orientation in University Environments

Robert J. Riethmiller

Fairleigh Dickinson University

The influence of a university environment’s heterogeneity vs. homogeneity on the self monitoring orientation of its students was tested. Lennox’s bimodal model of self monitoring is used with an expectation that students from a heterogeneous university environment will score higher on acquisitive self monitoring, and students from the homogenous university will score higher on protective self monitoring. Lenox and Wolfe’s Revised Self Monitoring Scale and Concern for Appropriate Scale are used for assessment. All trends were in the expected direction expect the Cross Situational Variability factor score of the Concern for Appropriateness Scale, which was slightly in the opposite direction. None of these trends achieved significance, although this study did reveal several significant findings regarding academic year that have led to hypotheses for further study.

Momentum and Stalemate: The Influence of Past Outcomes in Recurring Negotiations

Karen L. Harris and Dusten Rizzo-Wojak

Western Illinois University

It was hypothesized that events of past disputes may impact upon the effectiveness of current negotiations. Pairs of participants (N = 50) were asked to complete a simulated negotiation. A portion of these disputants were allowed to experience successful resolution in early negotiations. The other portion failed to resolve the dispute in early negotiations. Behavioral data provided limited evidence for a momentum effect. The data, however, did strongly support the hypothesis that extreme levels of past failure would enhance negotiation performance. Additionally, self-report measures indicated that a pair of negotiators who had experienced failure would be more suitable for third party intervention. These results were interpreted in light of current theoretical work regarding stalemate and ripeness.

Momentum and Stalemate: The Influence of Past Outcomes in Recurring Negotiations

Karen L. Harris and Dusten Rizzo-Wojak

Western Illinois University

It was hypothesized that events of past disputes may impact upon the effectiveness of current negotiations. Pairs of participants (N = 50) were asked to complete a simulated negotiation. A portion of these disputants were allowed to experience successful resolution in early negotiations. The other portion failed to resolve the dispute in early negotiations. Behavioral data provided limited evidence for a momentum effect. The data, however, did strongly support the hypothesis that extreme levels of past failure would enhance negotiation performance. Additionally, self-report measures indicated that a pair of negotiators who had experienced failure would be more suitable for third party intervention. These results were interpreted in light of current theoretical work regarding stalemate and ripeness.

Work Motivation Down Under: Laboring Under An Illusion?

Sonya R. Jones, Stuart C. Carr and  Gian Casimir

Department of Psychology
University of Newcastle
NSW 2308 AUSTRALIA

An  impediment to Australian integration with Asia may be psychological; a stereotype that the Australian worker is motivated extrinsically rather than intrinsically. In an effort to unravel fact from any fiction, Australians (N = 100) in a variety of occupations were asked 1) how many of their compatriots and 2) whether they themselves would continue to work in the absence of financial, extrinsic motivators (after Carr et al, 1993, and Morse and Weiss, 1955, respectively). Corroborating the stereotype, a majority of 64 % of compatriots on average were perceived to be extrinsically motivated, yet 74 % reported that they themselves would want to continue working- a majority, which is robust over age, gender, and occupational category. Exploring and disseminating this dramatic contrast to the fundamental attribution error ( a “fundamental work illusion” already recorded in Malawi, Africa) may help dispel any pluralistic ignorance and aid the development of mutual understanding in the region – in the process providing a timely reminder that psychology is indeed capable of contributing towards both national and international development.

Needed Directions in the Psychotherapeutic of Drunk Drivers

Mitchell L. Schare

Hofstra University

Using an international perspective, this paper reviews the most common modalities employed for combating the very serious problem of drunk drivers. The philosophy of deterrence (described as the use of punishment) and/or education procedures (teaching drunk drivers the dangerousness of their actions) appear to be 2 primary methods currently in use for working with the drunk driving offender. The paper argues that real behavior change could be effected by the use of behavioral psychotherapy procedures.

The Relative Interference in Imaginal and Attentional Processing by a Secondary Imagery Task

Kris Kogan and Sarah Ransdell

New College of the University of South Florida

Participants (N = 30) were given primary attentional and imagery tasks in combination with secondary imagery tasks to determine the degree to which attention and imagery share cognitive resources. Inference by the secondary task was measured through reaction time to questions about primary and secondary stimuli. The stimuli were either automatic or controlled in that there was either one or multiple forced perspective to test 2 levels of attention (Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987). The stimuli were either present or not during questioning to test attention and imagery, respectively. Significant interactions were found between task level and attention level, as well as between attention level and presence of stimulus during questioning. During the primary task, responding to the controlled questions took longer than the automatic questions; the opposite was true during the secondary task. In the automatic conditions, questions given while the stimuli were present took less time to respond to than those given when the stimuli were not present. Thus, although attention and imagery are believed to share cognitive processes, there are qualitative differences.

Learning from Lectures: Influence of Title and Repetition on Recall

Peter A. Gill and Vincent Prohaska

Lehman College City University of New York

The title and number of times (once or twice) a lecture was presented were varied to examine changes in the information recalled. The first group of participants was exposed to introductory remarks indicating that the lecture concerned subliminal self-help tapes (content condition). The second group was exposed to introductory remarks indicating that the lecture concerned experimental methods in psychology (method condition). A free recall task was administered after the final presentation for each group. Independent judges (2 with a third judge reconciling differences) coded protocols into idea units and then identified each unit recalled as either a content or method statement. Results revealed a main effect for recalled content statements: participants recalled more information when they heard the lecture twice. For recalled method statements, there was an interaction: participants in the content- 2 presentations condition recalled the least method information. Results are consistent with prior findings and offer the title of a lecture as a component in learning.

Causal Attributions for Success and Failure Among Athletes and Observers

Joanne M. Lertora
University of Missouri-St. Louis

Jack L. Powell
University of Hartford

It was hypothesized that events of past disputes may impact upon the effectiveness of current negotiations. Pairs of participants (N = 50) were asked to complete a simulated negotiation. A portion of these disputants were allowed to experience successful resolution in early negotiations. The other portion failed to resolve the dispute in early negotiations. Behavioral data provided limited evidence for a momentum effect. The data, however, did strongly support the hypothesis that extreme levels of past failure would enhance negotiation performance. Additionally, self-report measures indicated that a pair of negotiators who had experienced failure would be more suitable for third party intervention. These results were interpreted in light of current theoretical work regarding stalemate and ripeness.

Effects of Isolated Versus Social Physical Activity on Creativity

Lisa M. Puma and Charles A. Waehler

The University of Akron

The present study investigates the attributions of success and failure among amateur figure skaters and observers. Skaters and their parents (N = 88) read each of 4 vignettes describing either successful or unsuccessful outcomes and then filled out Russell’s (1982) Causal Dimension Scale to assess their attributions on each of Weiner’s dimension of locus of causality, stability, and controllability. Results showed that skaters in the success condition made more internal, stable, and controllable attributions than skaters in the failure condition. Beginning skaters made more external and uncontrollable attributions than did intermediate or advanced skaters—for both success and failure outcomes. Explanations for this finding are discussed. No actor-observer differences were found for any of the dimensions.