Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1968

Volume 3

Contents:

Personality Variable Related to Subliminal Perception

Dale Landau, Caryl Ericson-Mussig, Melinda Waite

Fairleigh Dickinson University

The purpose of the study was twofold: (1) to determine whether a subjects performance on three subliminal tasks (social situation, learning, problem-solving) was related: (2) to determine whether certain personality factors were related to subliminal receptivity. Correlations between tasks were nonsignificant, indicating that subliminal receptivity is not a general factor but is related to type of task. Correlation between personality traits and subliminal tasks gave no evidence for a general personality pattern for subliminally receptive subjects. Significant inverse correlations between subliminal performances on the social task and the traits of dogmatism and withdrawing tendencies supported similar previous findings.

The Effects of Group Opinion on Conformity

Jules Marquart, Regina Miron Catherine

Spalding College

The present study was designed to measure the effects of group pressure on an individual in a weight discrimination task. Twenty undergraduate female students were confronted with the problem of making a conforming and incorrect, or a nonconforming and correct perceptual judgement. The results showed that the degree of conformity depended a great deal on the degree of difference in weights. When faced with the incongruity of the judgements, the subjects also expressed varying forms of anxiety.

The Effect of Dissonant Information Upon Immediate Recall

Susan R. Schlam

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Prior research was inconsistent with regard to the recall of discrepant and nondiscrepant information . The present experiment attempted to clarify the issue of recall and the degree and direction of discrepancy. Twenty female college students, tested in pairs, were administrated two personality rating lists on which they rated themselves and rated a friend Later, the self-rating was returned with the friend's ratings (falsified by the experimenter) transcribed onto it. Subjects were then asked to recall both ratings. Results of the study were significant and showed that discrepant information was more difficult to recall than nondiscrepant information and that accuracy of recall decreased with an increase in the degree of discrepancy.

The Effect of A Protein Deficient Diet on the Ability of the Albino Rat to Learn a Simple Maze

Patricia Harding

Ball State University

This study was conducted to determine the effects of protein depletion on the ability of the albino rat to perform in a simple maze discrimination task. During the 35 day period , two groups of rats were placed on a balanced diet(control) and two groups on a low protein diet (experimental). Testing was accomplished during the last fourteen days using the learning of a simple discrimination in a double T-maze. Little difference was noted between groups. Both groups showed significant improvement in performance during the first week of testing and a leveling after that.

The Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Astrological Signs

Joanne Rosenberg

Fairleigh Dickinson University

In an effort to experimentally investigate the horoscope, the present study was designed to determine whether an individual's personality characteristics based upon horoscope predictions were significantly related to the personality characteristics as described by himself. Seventy-two undergraduate students were asked to indicate which one of twelve personality descriptions( each corresponding to a zodiac sign) best describe himself. The results indicated a highly significant relationship between individually chosen and horoscopically predicted personality descriptions, suggesting that further exploration of astrology as a science might prove fruitful.

Acquired Reward Value of A Neutral Stimulus As A Function of the Number of Pairings with Primary Reinforcement

Kathleen O'Shaunessy

D'Youville College

Thirty six male rats were divided into three groups Group 1 received 100% primary reinforcement accompanied by light on all trials; Group 2 received 100% primary reinforcement accompanied by light on 50% of all trials and group 3 received 100% primary reinforcement accompanied by light on 0% of the trials. Aside from this variation all subjects were treated alike with each receiving 125 chain pull trials during acquisition and a 40 minute bar press test trial. The light accompanied every response in testing for all three groups. The results showed no significant differences in either the number of the responses (bar presses) or the rate of responding for any of the three groups further, the light had no facilitative effect on response latencies during chain pull acquisition. It was concluded that the light did not function as a secondary reinforcer. Other possible explanations were advanced.