Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1967

 Volume 2

Contents:

Motivation: An Attempt at Quantification

Daniel Kremin

Fairleigh Dickinson University

The present study was an attempt to quantify motivation by defining a one-to-one relationship between motivation and the physical properties of distance and time (M = D/T). Distance was held constant and 18 undergraduate students were presented with a high and low motivation task. Each with for consecutive sections. Highly significant differences between the two tasks indicated that time to completion was inversely proportional to level of motivation. Decreases in time to completion were significantly related to decreases in number of errors (r = .60). Further substantiating the plausibility of the M=D/T formulation. General and specific motivational factors were suggested to account for continuous decreases in completion time for the high motivating task and for an eventual sharp rise in completion time for the low motivating task.

The Effect of Anxiety on Time Estimation

William H. Clark

Fairleigh Dickinson University

the present study examined the effect of anxiety on the estimation of eight different time intervals. Twenty five male undergraduate students were required to estimate time intervals under an anxiety condition in which shock was administered for inaccurate time estimations, and a non anxiety condition in which no shock was given. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean time estimates under anxiety and non-anxiety conditions. Previous findings of anxiety producing overestimation of time intervals were not supported. It was suggested that overestimation of time intervals is related to the subjects' control over the object of anxiety (i.e. shock). When subjects were able to avoid shock through accurate time estimations, overstimulation did not occur.

How to Make the Loss Qualified Candidate Win an Election by Really Trying

James Gaston, Brenda Majeski, Nancy Joiner, and Dorothy Ready

Georgia Southwestern College

A study was preformed to test the effect of advertising techniques on the outcome of an election. Two female candidates gave rigged speeches, making one appear well-qualified and the other unqualified, at an assembly of an undergraduate freshman class. A sample vote taken immediately after the assembly indicated a 3.1 margin for the well qualified candidate. An intensive 1.5 day campaign which avoided issues and consisted of leaflets, posters,personal appeals, radio and spots. A newspaper ad and the candidate name on distributed chewing gum, produced a victorious 2.1 majority for the unqualified candidate although only 205 of the entire class voted. There was no difference in the voting behavior of those who attended the assembly and those who had not.

The Effect Upon Reading Speed and Comprehension of Various Color Combinations of Page and Printed Material

Joan Baron

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Various color combinations of page and printed material were used to determine effects upon reading speed and comprehension. Each of 24 freshman college students was presented with four reading tests which varied I the color of the page and the printed material: black on white, black on yellow, brown on white, brown on yellow. The results showed that differences in comprehension were not significant, but that differences in comprehension were significant the latter account for by a significantly slower reading speed for the brown on white condition. It was noted that certain textbooks currently in use are employing brown print on a white page.

Birth Order and Sex Selective Factors in Volunteering for Psychological Experiments

Jane Rosenberg

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Birth order as a factor in volunteering for psychological experiments involving small group participation is an important experimental variable since conclusions are based on experimentation which often relies heavily upon volunteer subjects. The present study was an attempt to replicate an earlier study which found birth order to be a significant factor in volunteering, and also to investigate gender as a variable in volunteering. Fifty eight males and forty two females served as subjects. The results showed that gender was significant but that birth order was not significant in influencing subjects to volunteer. It was noted that willingness to volunteer may also be related to a feeling of obligation to a classmate as a experimenter.

Differences in Aspiration Levels of Middle and Lower Class Adolescents

Elaine Kurtz

Fairleigh Dickinson University

The present study was performed to determine whether adolescents from the middle class have significantly higher aspirations when compared to adolescents from the lower class. Thirty male high school students, comprising two groups, were individually asked questions concerned with their present achievement aspiration level, and their satisfaction with their present achievement. The results showed that the middle class adolescents had significantly higher aspirations with regard to their future plans after high school. The difference between the two groups concerning their actual grades, and the grades they felt they should be achieving was not significant.

Humor Preference and Personality Traits

Maurice Rybowski

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Two previous experiments examined the preference for aggressive cartoons as a function of anxiety level and experimentally induced aggressive cartoons as related to more basic personality needs, those of aggression, nurturance and abasement. Thirty males undergraduate and graduate students served as subjects. A correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship only for nurtrance (r = .30). It was suggested that the preference for aggressive cartoons may be more a function of situational factors (induced aggression) than more basic personality traits (need for aggression). It was also suggested that the successful control of aggression, resulting in a need opposite to aggression (i.e. nurtrance), is extended to the suppression of laughter at aggressive cartoons.

The Relationship Between Aggression Laughter and Expected Courtesy, Inhibition with Adults, Sexual Inhibition, Inhibition with Men, and Femininity in College Women

Rosaland Ettinger and Rita Gnessin

Fairleigh Dickinson University

This study examined the relationship between aggressive laughter and expected courtesy, inhibition with adults, sexual inhibition. Inhibition with men and femininity. Based on responses to a questionnaire, 103 female college women were classified as high or low in each of the six personality expressions. The results indicated that high aggressive laughter was significantly related to low femininity and also to high sexual inhibition ( the latter contrary to the hypothesis). It as noted that generalizations from the findings were limited due to certain biases in the sample.