Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1966

 Volume 1

Contents:

Learning Strength, Transfer and Retention in Proactive Inhibition

Rochelle Rothstein

Fairleigh Dickinson University

This study examined certain basic effects of interfering responses upon transfer and upon forgetting. In a PI experiment, 20 undergraduate students learned two paired association lists in an A-B, A-C learning paradigm. With a mixed list design, it was found that a) strong first list learning led to significantly better recall of second list associations, b) no negative transfer effects were obtained and c) retention was significantly related to item strength. All three results contradicted previous findings. It was suggested that these differences in results were due to the use of meaningful material (as opposed to nonsense syllables) and overlearning of long standing (as opposed to an increased in learning trials). A comparison between recall and recognition as retention measures indicated that significant results using recall were not found using recognition.

Supraliminal, Subliminal and Incidental Stimulation: Influences in Problem Solving

Philip Parmet

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Prior research indicated that supraliminal cues did not facilitate problem solving more than subliminal cues. Several theoretical interpretations, heretofore neglected, questions the generality of this finding. The present study was performed to clarity this issue, and to explore the added dimension of incidental stimulation. Fifty-six college students, comprising 5 groups, received cues prior to solving a problem: supraliminal relevant, subliminal relevant, supraliminal nonrelevant, subliminal nonrelevant, and incidental. Subjects in the supraliminal relevant group were aided more by cues than subjects in the other four groups, thus supporting the hypothesis that supraliminal and subliminal stimulation cannot be considered equally effective in aiding problem solving behavior.

The Aural Introduction of New Words Prior to the Standard Aural- Visual Presentation: Effects Upon Learning

Barbara Assaykeen and Kenneth Borup

Fairleigh Dickinson University

The value of listening vocabulary in facilitating the learning of new vocabulary has been cited in the literature. The present experiment extended the use of listening vocabulary to grades beyond the first. In using 22 second grade pupils. It was found that a single aural introduction of new words prior to the standard method, involving a simultaneous aural-visual presentation, resulted in a highly significant 32.8% increase in learning. This prior aural introduction was equally beneficial to pupils above average and well above average in intelligence.

The Effects of Hue, Luminance and Saturation of Colors on the Perception of Size and Distance

Sharon Wardzeka

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Previous studies on the effects of color have found luminance to be the major cue in the perception of apparent size and distance. Few studies have compared the different dimensions of color (hue, luminance,and saturation) and none have examined the effects of saturation. The present study examined the effects of hue, luminance, and saturation on perceived size and distance. Thirty high school students served as participants. It was found that perceived distance was not. Hue and saturation, as well as luminance, were influential in determining perceived size.

Emotionally and Pupillary Reactions

Kenneth Price

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Pupillary responses to emotional and non-emotional words were measured individually for six subjects. Two subjects revealed a constriction of pupil diameter to emotional words and a dilation to non-emotional words. The responses of four subjects were inconsistent and thus the results proved to be inconclusive. Several methodological difficulties associated with the choice and presentation of emotional words were noted.