The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 2011

Volume 22

Table of Contents:

The Three-Headed Problem Solver: The Effect of Group Cognition on Problem Solving
Christina M. Poulin and Mareike B. Weith
Pages 1-6 | Abstract

An Evaluation of a Naturalistic, Summer Camp-Based, Social Skills Training Program
Joseph S. Bigda-Peyton and Penny V. Corkum
Pages 7-13 | Abstract

Perceived Parenting Styles as Determinants of Patterns of Aspiration and Achievement Goals
Sumera Rubbani and Sarwat Sultan
Pages 14-21 | Abstract

The Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in College Students
Allison S. Christian, Jessica Y. Swetin, Kristin M. Sexton, and Jennifer Zwolinski
Pages 22-29 | Abstract

Collective Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Application on the Cultural and Societal Levels
Amanda Scarlett
Pages 30-35 | Abstract

Emotional Memory in Women: Why a Negative Bias?
Frishta Sharifi, Christie Chung, Ekaterina Mahinda, Jennifer Johnson, and Sara Wong
Pages 36-42 | Abstract

Predicting Credit Card Debt Among College Students: The Attitudes – Behavior Relation
Brian P. Kennedy and Guillermo Wated
Pages 43-50 | Abstract

Psychological Functioning among College Women in Abusive Relationships
Katie M. Edwards, Christina A. Myrick, and Christine A. Gidycz
Pages 51-56 | Abstract

Exploring the Relationship between Sexual Identity and Eating Disorders/Body Image
Vanessa L. Curran  
Pages 57-64 | Abstract

 


Abstracts:

The Three-Headed Problem Solver: The Effect of Group Cognition on Problem Solving 
Christina M. Poulin and Mareike B. Weith 
Pages 1-6

The present study investigated group work, problem processing, and problem solving success. Participants were asked to solve word problems in a small group or a solo problem solving setting. After completing all problems, participants’ memory for problem components was assessed. Consistent with previous research, participants in the group condition had higher solve rates than participants in the solo problem solving condition.  Additionally, participants’ memory for problem components differed depending on condition. Participants in the group condition showed less memory for problem components that were irrelevant to reaching the final solution compared to participants in the solo condition.  These findings indicate that group work not only influences problem solving success, but also the cognitive processes involved in problem solving.  Back to Top


An Evaluation of a Naturalistic, Summer Camp-Based, Social Skills Training Program 
Joseph S. Bigda-Peyton and Penny V. Corkum 
Pages 7-13

Children with emotional and behavioral disorders typically have difficulty with social skills as part of their disorder (e.g., Asperger’s Disorder) and/or with outcomes from their behavior (e.g., Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). Social skills training (SST) is a commonly used intervention, utilized in a wide range of settings, to treat these social problems.  The present study examined the effectiveness of such a program. This summer camp-based program provides social skills training for children with a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders.  A pre/post-treatment design was used to determine effectiveness of SST as implemented in this particular program.  Overall, the hypotheses were not supported.  In light of these issues, critical benchmarks for treatment outcome research using this type of population and setting are highlighted.  Back to Top


Perceived Parenting Styles as Determinants of Patterns of Aspiration and Achievement Goals
Sumera Rubbani and Sarwat Sultan
Pages 14-21

This study was designed to explore the role of perceived parenting styles in determining patterns of aspiration and achievement goals among a sample of 110 postgraduate students at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. Results from the Parenting Style Scale (Powel & Dillon, 1998), the Aspiration Index (Kasser & Ryan, 1996), and the Achievement Goals Scale (Elliot & Mc Gregor, 1999) showed that students perceiving an authoritative parenting style have more intrinsic aspiration and mastery goals while the students perceiving authoritarian and permissive parenting have extrinsic aspiration and performance goals.  Back to Top


The Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in College Students
Allison S. Christian, Jessica Y. Swetin, Kristin M. Sexton, and Jennifer Zwolinski 
Pages 22-29

Research suggests higher rates of depression, anxiety, and stress among college students compared to the general population, especially freshmen and seniors, which could be accounted for by the Diathesis-Stress Model. The current study examined prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among 205 college students (182 female, 23 male), who completed an anonymous, online questionnaire including demographic information and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. A MANOVA was run, and contrary to study hypotheses, levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were not significantly higher among first and last year students. Mean values of depression, anxiety, and stress are in the severe, extremely severe, and moderate ranges, respectively. Results suggest continued research and intervention among all college students.  Back to Top


Collective Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Application on the Cultural and Societal Levels 
Amanda Scarlett
Pages 30-35

The author explores definitions and models of forgiveness, as well as the possibility of employing such models in cultural and cross-cultural conflicts. A close examination of Staub, Pearlman, Gubin and Hagengimana’s intervention after the Rwanda genocide (1994), as well as the success of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Committee following apartheid, are presented in support of the hypothesis that such large-scale endeavors to reduce intergroup antipathy through forgiveness and reconciliation are not only possible, but are also effective. The article concludes with the example of the positive effects of the Australian government’s public apology to the Aborigines for past injustices, as well as suggestions for further research for social psychologists.  Back to Top


Emotional Memory in Women: Why a Negative Bias?
Frishta Sharifi, Christie Chung, Ekaterina Mahinda, Jennifer Johnson, and Sara Wong
Pages 36-42

This study examined whether mood trait or mood state may affect women's emotional memory. Non- depressed and depressed young women were assigned to either a positive or negative mood induction phase (autobiographical memory task) before participating in an incidental picture memory task. Experiment 1a and 1b showed that both depressed and non-depressed women exhibited a pronounced negativity bias in their memory, regardless of mood induction condition. Participants’ autobiographical memories provided in the mood induction phase of Experiment 1a were analyzed in Experiment 2. Results suggest that negative memories tend to stem from distinct categories while positive ones are drawn from many diverse experiences.  Back to Top


Predicting Credit Card Debt Among College Students: The Attitudes – Behavior Relation
Brian P. Kennedy and Guillermo Wated
Pages 43-50

The current study aimed to expand Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior by adding the construct of economic locus of control (Furnham, 1986) to predict credit card debt among college students. Ninety-six participants (65 women) completed an online survey measuring attitudes toward credit, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and economic locus of control. Analysis revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control successfully predicted intention to use credit cards. Nevertheless, economic locus of control failed to predict intention. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between perceived behavioral control and amount of credit card debt. This information may be incorporated into financial literacy programs that aim to change students’ attitudes toward credit and increase perceived control over credit card usage.  Back to Top


Psychological Functioning among College Women in Abusive Relationships 
Katie M. Edwards, Christina A. Myrick, and Christine A. Gidycz
Pages 51-56

Previous research demonstrates the negative psychological consequences of dating violence. The current study expanded this body of literature by having college women (largely young and Caucasian) complete surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter to assess 1) the impact of dating abuse on psychological distress and 2) changes in psychological distress as a result of leaving an abusive relationship. Results demonstrated that partner abuse was related to a number of negative mental health outcomes. Longitudinal analyses showed that 12% of women left their abusive partners over the 10-week interim period. However, there were no changes in psychological distress for women who left their abusive relationships, compared to women who remained in their abusive relationships.  Back to Top


Exploring the Relationship between Sexual Identity and Eating Disorders/Body Image
Vanessa L. Curran  
Pages 57-64

This study’s purpose is to explore the interaction among sexual identity, eating disorders, and body image. A sample of 83 college students were administered a survey to identify their sexual orientation, body image types, and evaluate the prevalence of eating disorders. Twelve respondents were interviewed. Data on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image types in the sample are presented. The interview data indicated that a majority of interviewees reported, when involved in a romantic relationship, they perceive women as less judgmental of physical appearance and more appreciative of bodies than men. Another common theme was that the pressure to be attractive to men has contributed to several interviewees’ negative body images and/or disordered eating habits.  Back to Top