The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 2002-2003

JPBS 2002

Volume 16-17, 2003

Terms and Conditions:

Copyright 2003 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 17, published Spring, 2003. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University

Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.

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If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $14.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:

Dr. Anthony Tasso
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8094
E-mail: atasso@fdu.edu

 


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Volume 16 Contents

1. Personality Disorders and University Women's Contraceptive Behavior- Melinda Thomas, William E. Snell, Jr., Southeast Missouri State University

2. New Cognitive Data for Paleolithic Men: When Psychology Meets Archaeology - I. Saillot, Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris

3. Media Exposure and Desensitization to Graphic Imagery - Tammy L. Clark and Harvey Richman, Columbus State University

4. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Ethnic Identity: A Comparison of Black and White Women - Daniella Sandre, Stewart Page, and Jennifer Out, University of Windsor

5. The Vicious Cycle that Links Drugs and Crime - Kelly A. Cafone, Fairleigh Dickinson University

**Note: no authors in Vol. 17 participated as reviewers for Vol. 17


Volume 17 Contents

1. The Relationship Between Humorous Coping Skills and the Initial Personal-Emotional Adjustment of College Freshmen Enrolled in a Small Southwestern Evangelical Christian University - Jennifer Burgoyne, Julie Cole, and Gregory P. Hickman, The Pennsylvania State University - Fayette

2. Dissociative Identity Disorder and the Brain: A Brief Review - Alysa Beth Ray, Amanda Johnson, Sean O'Hagen, Gina Lardi, and Julian Paul Keenan, Montclair State University

3. Conotoxins Reveal Significant Psychopharmacological Effectiveness: The Future of Pain Management - Tara Ely, Fairleigh Dickinson University

4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment: A Current Literature Review - Melissa A. Knott, Fairleigh Dickinson University

5. Recent Findings on Dopamine in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia- Cristy A. Ku, Whittier College

The following are accepted web published manuscripts

1. Academic Indiscretion in Hypothetical Scenarios: Identifying Situational Variables Conducive to Cheating - Jenny R. Rusnak, Kenneth M. Cramer, Stewart Page, and Ingrid G. Campbell, University of Windsor

2. Name Attractiveness and Recruiter Persuasiveness in a Field Study - Melanie Freeman, Kenneth M. Cramer, & Michelle W. Langlois, University of Windsor

3. Gender and Assessments of Academic Cheating: Gilligan's Justice and Care Orientations - Michael Chapman, Stewart Page, and Kenneth M. Cramer, University of Windsor

4. Media Exposure and Desensitization to Graphic Imagery - Tammy L. Clark and Harvey Richman, Columbus State University

5. Personality Disorders and University Women's Contraceptive Behavior- Melinda Thomas, William E. Snell, Jr., Southeast Missouri State University

6. Nationalism or Racism in Response to Mortality Salience: Which Worldview is Defended in a Situation of Multiple Group Identities?- Jeremy Wischusen, Lori J. Nelson, Nicole Pollini, Shippensburg University

7. The Relations between Emotional Stability, Self-Esteem, and Sense of Coherence- Siobhan Sullivan, Loyola College

8. The Effect of Black Women's Skin Tone on College Students' Ratings of Their Employability: A Preliminary Study - Natalie Brown, BA, Arcadia University, Angela Gillem, PhD, Arcadia University, Steven Robbins, PhD, Arcadia University, Rebecca Lafleur, MA, The College of New Rochelle

9. On the Nature of Human Nature: Comparing Formal and Informal Theories of Personality - Kandice R. Collins & Kenneth M. Cramer, University of Windsor

10. The Relationship of Optimism With Psychological and Physical Well-Being - Joseph Rabiega and Brooke J. Cannon, Marywood University

11. The Link Between Psychological Stress and Carcinogenesis - Jennifer V. Stivers, Fairleigh Dickinson University

12. Teen Movies of the 1980's and 1990's: A Media Content Analysis - Nancy Berens, Felisha Crutcher, and Wendy Johnson, The College of St. Catherine

 

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CREDITS

JPBS Volumes 16-17 - STUDENT OFFICERS

CO-EDITORS: Raymond Brock-Murray and Makeisha Lee

Treasurer: Lemuel T. Brown, III

CO-EDITORS Elect for Vol. 18: Anjali Tekriwal

Treasurer: Schubert Jacques

WEB MANAGER: Yahav Shoost

FEATURING STUDENT REVIEWERS (from both FDU and Montclair State Univ., in no particular order, *signifies Montclair State Univ.)

Raymond Brock-Murray
Makeisha Lee
*Deanna Pecora
*Gina Lardi
*Amanda Wolf
*Lori Caserta
*Paul Constantino
*Amanda Johnson
*Jaclyn Pita
*Sean O'Hagen
*Jason Triano
*Alysa Ray

Meredith Jacobowitz
Anjali Tekriwa
Jorge Hernandez
Danielle Albanese
Daniel Gross
Anastasia Louka
Rachael Anzivino
Jennifer Packard
Mark Steitz
Jennifer Durman
Navaneet Gill
Lemuel T. Brown, III

 

HONORABLE MENTION: Lucy A. Quatrella, Ph. D., Seton Hall (*Lifetime Journal Member)

We thank Dr. Daniel J. Calcagnetti for serving as
JPBS Faculty Advisor and Editor 1994-2003

ART & GRAPHIC DESIGN CONSULTANT: Ms. Laura Duncan

DEADLINE FOR THE NEXT EDITION
EARLY DECISION IS FEBRUARY 15th.

Phone: (973) 443-8547

Submissions must be sent directly to:
JPBS Faculty Advisor
Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison
Department of Psychology, M-AB1-01
285 Madison Ave., Madison, NJ 07940

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Volume 16-17 Editorial Commentary

We acknowledge the student staff efforts for their time and efforts to bring volumes 16-17 to print. This journal serves as an example that students who are fortunate enough to have found caring and creative mentors can and will become published.

In case you have not read our journal before; allow us to provide a brief introduction. JPBS is a non-profit Fairleigh Dickinson University journal produced by students. JPBS is the original student managed journal for student research in psychology (first published in 1966). Our mission is to review research submissions from students and promote the student-mentor relationship leading to publication.

We invite you and your department to subscribe to our latest edition. We feel that having a copy available in every Psychology Department for faculty and students to see and read is the best way to make students aware of this opportunity. Please circulate this call to all interested students and faculty. If a departmental or personal subscription is not possible at this time, please take the time to phone your library and request that they contact us for subscription information. You can post our Call for Papers so students will learn about the opportunity to publish or visit our Web page at http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychweb/JPBS.htm.


Notice* Our members have adopted a policy regarding the use of certain statistical analyses. Any submissions wherein Pearson r, t-tests and ANOVAs are employed to analyze ordinal or nominal case measurement data, shall not be considered for review and will be automatically returned. These statistical tests require interval or ratio data measurement scales. Analyzing data using an inappropriate measurement scale leads to a violation of the statistical assumptions behind these tests, a weakening of the strength of conclusions, and an indeterminate impact on the power of a statistical test.

 

Volume 16 Faculty Advisor Editorial Commentary

One aspect of JPBS which sets it apart from other journals publishing student contributions is the inclusion of a theme section. Volume 10 focused upon the efficacy of naltrexone (ReVia) as a potential treatment drug for alcoholism. Volume 11 focused upon the impact of nicotine-containing products (435,000 Americans a year, and perhaps 3 million people world-wide die prematurely from exposure to nicotine-containing products). Volume 12 focused on the effects of methcathinone as a drug of abuse rampant in Russia. Volume 13 focused on the effects of caffeine; the drug most consumed worldwide. Volume 14 focused on the testosterone-like effects of steroids. In this issue, we are pleased to present manuscripts that provide overviews of Ibogaine.

In closing, I once again congratulate the student staff for their time and efforts to bring this volume to print. I thank the FDU-Madison Campus Administrators and Mr. Gregory O. Buck, President Penny Press, Madison, NJ, for his publishing talents that continue to make our journal a pleasure to read. Lastly, this journal serves as an example that students who are fortunate enough to have found caring and creative mentors can and will become published.

My Regards, Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D., JPBS Faculty Advisor.

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Other Journals that highlight Student Publication/Research in Psychology include:

1) Der Zeitgeist: The Student Journal of Psychology (TM) (ISSN 1080-6725) is an electronic journal devoted to publishing the work of psychology undergraduate and graduate students. The journal is published annually on the World Wide Web. All APA approved articles are considered. URL: Der Zeitgeist can be viewed at http://www.wwu.edu/~9140024/index.html

2) Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research: Founded 1996; Phone (423) 756-2044

3) Modern Psychological Studies: Founded 1992; Telephone (423) 785-2238

4) Journal of Psychological Inquiry: Founded 1996; Contact Mark Ware, Psych. Dept.,
Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE 68178

5) Journal of Undergraduate Sciences, Harvard University Science Center, 1 Oxford
Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, http://hcs.harvard.edu/~jus/home.html

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Academic Indiscretion in Hypothetical Scenarios: Identifying Situational Variables Conducive to Cheating

Jenny R. Rusnak, Kenneth M. Cramer, Stewart Page, and Ingrid G. Campbell
University of Windsor

Abstract: Although academic discretion has been a major problem at many universities and colleges, few studies have investigated the situational variables most conducive to cheating. Male and female undergraduates indicated whether they would report any of four hypothetical offenses to a friend, family member, professor, or department head. The scenarios included either a stranger or friend cheating during a minor quiz or medical exam. For all conditions, report rates averaged 37%, with higher report rates to friends (80%), but lower to professors (22%) and department heads (11%). Log?linear and odds ratio analyses confirmed the hypothesis that students who witnessed cheating on the hypothetical scenarios for medical exams (compared to minor quizzes) were more likely to report the offense. Results also showed that females who witnessed cheating on the hypothetical scenarios were more likely than males to report the offense to the professor; no gender differences were observed for reports to friends, family, or professor.

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Name Attractiveness and Recruiter Persuasiveness in a Field Study

Melanie Freeman, Kenneth M. Cramer, & Michelle W. Langlois
University of Windsor

Abstract: As a test of the influence of first names on persuasion, recruiters identified by common vs. uncommon and desirable vs. undesirable first names requested bystander signatures on a simple petition. One male and one female recruiter approached 40 male and 40 female university undergraduates at several popular campus locations. Combinations (4) of name attractiveness were derived by the crossing of commonness (statistical frequency) with desirability (perceived attractiveness). The degree of persuasiveness was determined by the total number of petition signatures collected. Results showed that recruiters with common names collected more signatures than recruiters with less common names. Results failed to support the hypotheses that (a) greater persuasion would be found with desirable names, and (b) recruiters with both common and desirable names would be the most persuasive. Results also failed to support the hypothesis of stronger effects among female participants. The absence of other significant effects suggests that other factors, such as source expertise, may have greater influence on persuasion.

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Gender and Assessments of Academic Cheating: Gilligan's Justice and Care Orientations

Michael Chapman, Stewart Page, and Kenneth M. Cramer
University of Windsor

Abstract: Although academic cheating is a growing concern on university campuses, gender differences and related issues in the study of cheating have attracted relatively little research. Accordingly, Gilligan's (1982) theory of gender differences in moral reasoning was used to analyze responses to hypothetical written descriptions of two different cheating scenarios. Using a series of rating scales and one open-ended question, 83 undergraduate participants, 48 females and 35 males, judged the seriousness of cheating activities described as having been carried out by a male and a female student. As a within-subjects factor, the cheating students were portrayed as cheating in the context of both a care-oriented as well as a justice-oriented academic situation. Differential use of the justice and care orientations was not significantly related to the gender of either the participant or the student portrayed in the hypothetical situations. Generally, participants responded with either orientation, depending on the type of scenario with which they were presented. Implications of the findings for Gilligan's theory, and related issues, are outlined.

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Media Exposure and Desensitization to Graphic Imagery

Tammy L. Clark and Harvey Richman
Columbus State University

Abstract: Research suggests that what we see and hear in the media helps shape our thoughts and behaviors. In particular, increasingly graphic content in the media may be desensitizing people to violence, aggression, and explicit sexual content. We hypothesized that individuals reporting higher levels of media exposure would be less responsive to a series of emotion-provoking images than those reporting lower levels of media exposure. Fourteen psychology majors were assessed for cumulative exposure to graphic imagery in the media (e.g., violence, sexuality). They then viewed a series of slides depicting graphic imagery and their subjective responses were recorded. Those reporting higher levels of media exposure showed lowered subjective distress in response to the slides, supporting our hypothesis. However, these participants tended to be younger in age. Therefore, we cannot rule out age as a determining factor. A future study controlling for age sample could help clarify this.

Correspondence: Tammy L. Clark, P.O. Box 53703, Ft. Benning, GA 31995-3703, Phone 706-682-9010, E-mail tclark699@aol.com

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Body Image Dissatisfaction and Ethnic Identity: A Comparison of Black and White Women

Daniella Sandre, Stewart Page, and Jennifer Out
University of Windsor

Abstract: Female university students (N = 89), 41 Black and 48 White, completed measures of body dissatisfaction, including the perceived importance of body shape and weight, as well as the 11 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Also assessed was the role of ethnic identity in attitudes and behaviors related to eating disorders. Results, including a significant multivariate analysis of variance, indicated that the Black and White women did differ on four EDI-2 subscales measuring body image dissatisfaction and related issues. White women reported significantly lower satisfaction with their body shape and weight. Between the two racial groups, there was a significant difference in ethnic identity scores with Blacks showing higher identification, although this variable did not strongly predict dependent variable scores within groups, that is, when each group was analyzed separately. These data suggest that there are important differences between Black and White women in terms of their attitudes and perceptions about food and typical eating habits, and that theories interpreting eating disorders must incorporate an awareness of these personal and social differences.

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The Vicious Cycle that Links Drugs and Crime

Kelly A. Cafone
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Abstract: Extensive research supports that drug use and crime are interrelated and are currently on a rise. Reports from American jail inmates and prison officials serve as evidence that drugs and alcohol are often a component of the violent crimes that transpire in this country. A tripartite conceptual outline is presented to explicate a better understanding of this recurring cycle in a psychopharmacological, economical, and systemic theory. Studies from England reveal similar events that seem to be correlated with a low socioeconomic status. Delinquency is rising in the adolescent population and this revolution will continue to repeat itself because of the lack of treatment interventions for those who need it.

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Personality Disorders and University Women's Contraceptive Behavior

Melinda Thomas, William E. Snell, Jr.,
Southeast Missouri State University

Abstract: An investigation was conducted to examine the association between personality disorders and contraceptive behavior in university women in varying types of relationships. As predicted, the results revealed that university women with histrionic personality disorder were more likely to report the use of reliable and effective contraception, but only when there were not currently involved in an intimate relationship. Several other personality disorders were also found to predict university women's contraceptive behavior in different types of intimate relationships. The discussion focuses on the intimate relationships of people with various personality disorders.

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Nationalism or Racism in Response to Mortality Salience:
Which Worldview is Defended in a Situation of Multiple Group Identities?

Jeremy Wischusen, Lori J. Nelson and Nicole Pollini
Shippensburg University

Abstract: This study examined the effects of mortality salience on intergroup bias in a situation involving multiple group memberships. European-American participants wrote an essay about personal mortality or a neutral topic. They then evaluated either a black or a white student who had made either pro-U.S. or anti-U.S. statements. Participants were thus provided with both nationalism and racism as potential avenues for reacting to personal mortality salience, but the situation made national identity more salient than racial identity. As predicted, mortality salience magnified nationalist bias, but did not affect racist bias. The predictive utility of terror management theory can be enhanced by specifying that an individual's most salient group identity will be the focus of intergroup bias generated by mortality salience.

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The Relations between Emotional Stability, Self-Esteem, and Sense of Coherence

Siobhan Sullivan
Loyola College

Abstract: The relations between emotional stability, self-esteem, and sense of coherence were examined. Participants included 84 Loyola College students, 42 males and 42 females aged 18 to 22 years. The participants filled out a demographic sheet, the Mini-Marker Set, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Orientation to Life Scale. The first hypothesis was that there would be a positive relationship between emotional stability and self-esteem. A significant relationship between emotional stability and self-esteem was found. The second hypothesis was that there would be a positive relationship between emotional stability and sense of coherence. A significant relationship was also found between emotional stability and sense of coherence. Results in this sample of college students are parallel to results found in other populations.

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Teen Movies of the 1980's and 1990's: A Media Content Analysis

Nancy Berens, Felisha Crutcher, and Wendy Johnson
The College of St. Catherine

Abstract: Research stemming from the learning theory concludes there is a growing amount of evidence that the media impacts human behavior. It is found that media has powerful effects for three reasons: children spend more time with the mass media than their society may be influenced by the portrayals of teen behaviors on the big and little screen.

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The Relationship of Optimism With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

Joseph Rabiega and Brooke J. Cannon
Marywood University

Abstract: The relationship of optimism with psychological and physical well-being is a well researched topic. Maintaining an optimistic view on life has been shown to reduce depression and help with the recovery process from major surgery. Other daily life events (i.e., job performance) have been found to be positively related to high levels of optimism. The literature on optimism also provides information on ways to measure optimism and distinguishes between the different theoretical constructs used to define optimism. Throughout this review, these topics, as well as other important issues related to optimism will be discussed in great detail. It is hoped that by reading this review, the reader will become appreciative of the powerful benefits of maintaining a positive outlook on life.

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The Relationship Between Humorous Coping Skills and the Initial Personal-Emotional Adjustment of College Freshmen Enrolled in a Small Southwestern Evangelical Christian University

Jennifer Burgoyne, Julie Cole, & Gregory P. Hickman
The Pennsylvania State University - Fayette

Abstract: Using self-report questionnaire data, the Coping Humor Scale and Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire were administered to 77 college freshmen enrolled in a small Southwestern Evangelical Christian University. Researchers examined the influence of humorous coping skills (i.e., independent variable) on the personal-emotional adjustment to college (i.e., dependent variable) of college freshmen. Using correlational analysis, a substantial positive correlation was found between humorous coping skills and the personal-emotional adjustment of college freshmen (r =.51, p < .01). Implications are drawn for those who service the needs of higher learning.

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Dissociative Identity Disorder and the Brain: A Brief Review

Alysa Beth Ray, Amanda Johnson, Sean O'Hagen, Gina Lardi,
and Julian Paul Keenan
Montclair State University

Abstract: Dissociative identity and depersonalization disorders are characterized by disruptions in the experience of self. Understanding the brain functions involved in these disorders is important to understanding the processes of self-experience in the human brain. A review of the published neurological research implicates different bilateral and particularly temporolimbic abnormalities in the mechanisms of dissociation and depersonalization. Further research employing technologically advanced high resolution imaging and larger samples is needed to clarify and enhance the current evidence.

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Conotoxins Reveal Significant Psychopharmacological Effectiveness:
The Future of Pain Management

Tara Ely
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Abstract: Various treatment modalities of acute and chronic pain have been an area of demand and interest for centuries. This article discusses the positive and negative consequences of pharmacological treatment of pain. The literature is based on extensive review of the data gathered among the experts in the field. This study focuses on the 2 major classes of drugs that are used to control pain: opioid and nonopioid analgesics. While opioids have revealed a vast range in purpose, research has indicated the many side effects as well as tolerance that can result. Current findings suggest nonopioid treatments derived from venoms are a more effective approach for pain management. Clinical trials have yielded conotoxins a positively explosive pharmacological approach for pain management.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment:
A Current Literature Review

Melissa A. Knott
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Abstract: Many children suffer with the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). These effects, which are physical, cognitive, and behavioral, although preventable, are irreversible. The following literature review examines the available information on FAS as well as other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), including diagnostic information and possible treatments. Information on FASD was used because factors that affect one disorder may have an effect on another and was therefore considered important. Although this condition has been around for a while, relatively little is known about it. At this time the best preventative measure against FAS is alcohol abstinence during pregnancy.

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Recent Findings on Dopamine in the
Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

Cristy A. Ku
Whittier College

Abstract: The original dopamine hypothesis (Carlsson & Lindqvist, 1963 as cited in Laruelle, Abi-Dargham, Gil, Kegeles, & Innis, 1999) predicts a hyperactivity of dopamine transmission that is responsible for the symptoms of schizophrenia. The hypothesis was based upon clinical observations of the effects of antipsychotic medications, however, recent research aims to directly measure the dopamine system in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Postmortem and in vivo methods have found results beyond a constant hyperactive state predicted in the classical dopamine hypothesis. In addition, complex interactions of the dopamine system with other neurotransmitters have been implicated.

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New Cognitive Data for Paleolithic Men:
When Psychology Meets Archaeology

I. Saillot
Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Muséum National d'Histoire
Naturelle de Paris

Abstract: We studied the functional chain of mammal process isolated on layer 5 Scladina cave, Sclayn, Belgium, which corresponds to a halt of chamois hunters during middle paleolithic (M.-H. Moncel, M. Patou-Mathis, M. Otte, 1998). Behavioural data is processed with a method from experimental cognitive psychology and especially the field of goal oriented actions: the elements of the analysis are the artefacs handled by prehistoric men on the site and the properties ascribed to the objects by these men. Objects and properties are linked through binary relationships, then processed by SIMBOL, a software developped at the IPH, after an initial publication of the Laboratoire de Psychologie Expérimentale of University Paris 8.

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The Effect of Black Women's Skin Tone on College Students' Ratings of Their Employability: A Preliminary Study

Natalie Brown, Angela Gillem, Steven Robbins
Arcadia University
and
Rebecca Lafleur
The College of New Rochelle

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of Black women's skin-tone on employability ratings. Employability ratings were defined by three measures: personal evaluation, qualifications-for-employment, and racial discrimination. Forty Black and forty White college students participated in the study. All participants were asked to read a job description and a resume, examine a picture of a hypothetical job candidate, and rate the candidate's employability by completing three response sheets. All participants received the same job description, resume and response sheets; half received a picture of a light-skinned woman and half received a dark-skinned picture. Men who rated the light-skinned applicant were more inclined to hire her than the men who rated the dark-skinned applicant, while women were equally inclined to hire both. Whites who rated the light-skinned applicant found her more employable than those who rated the dark-skinned one, whereas Blacks were equally inclined to hire both. Blacks, more than Whites, indicated that both applicants would experience discrimination.

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On the Nature of Human Nature: Comparing Formal
and Informal Theories of Personality

Kandice R. Collins & Kenneth M. Cramer
University of Windsor

Abstract: The present study assessed university students' views on human nature according to a standard set of theoretical dimensions, namely free will vs. determinism, causality vs. teleology, uniqueness vs. similarity, conscious vs. unconscious, pessimism vs. optimism, and biological vs. social influences. Based on the responses from 618 introductory and personality psychology students, results showed that the typical student theory of human nature (a) endorsed free will and goodness in others, (b) advocated the uniqueness of individuals, and (c) recognized the influence of causality, unconscious forces, and social relationships on personality. Cluster analysis uncovered two main clusters of theories, partitioned according to their endorsement of social influence and unconscious determinism. The student theory was most similar to the theories of Erikson, Horney, and Dollard and Miller. These findings are comparable to those obtained using Finnish students. Limitations are outlined, and suggestions for future research are given.

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The Link Between Psychological Stress and Carcinogenesis

Jennifer V. Stivers
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Abstract: This manuscript examines the correlation between psychological stress and carcinogenesis. A number of studies have indicated that there is a positive correlation between stress and cancer development as well as progression. Results indicated that an extensive longitudinal study is needed in order to definitively conclude that stress has a direct effect on cancer development in humans.

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Any comments or questions? Please write to Dr. Dan Calcagnetti at Daniel@FDU.edu