The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 2001

JPBS 2001
 Volume 15, 2001

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Copyright 2001 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 15, published Spring, 2001. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.

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If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $14.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:

Dr. Donalee Brown
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8974
E-mail: donalee@fdu.edu

 


Journal of Psychology

and the Behavioral Sciences

The Founding Student Managed Journal

for Student Research 1966-2001


Volume 15, 2001

Abstracts
(and full text for article #10.)


(Updated 2/03/2002)

New in this issue

Documents will now also be available
as Adobe Acrobat files.
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Contents

 

 

1. Putative Dendritic Changes Following Corpus Callosotomy in Human Cortex: A Quantitative and Qualitative Case Study - Johanna Creswell, Melody Hrubes, and Bob Jacobs , Colorado College, Laboratory of Quantitative Neuromorphology

2. Motivational Concepts of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers As Modeled after Aristotle’s Eudaimonia - Laura Monique Goodson, Mentor: Dr. Dennis E. Schell , The George Washington University

3. The Impact of Romantic Perfectionism on Relationship Affect - Nina Jackson, Mentor: Dr. William E. Snell Jr., Southeast Missouri State University

4. Birth Rank in Eating Disorders - Sarah T. Shafer; Faith Gilroy, Mentor, Loyola College

5. Observational Learning Versus Written Instruction - Allison J. DeLoy and Amber Altermatt, Mentor: Thomas J. Thieman, College of Saint Catherine

6. Fetishism: An Approach to Treatments - Mukta Gadkari, The College of St. Catherine

7. The Effectiveness of Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy with At-Risk Adolescents- Mark J. Bowers and Pamelyn M. MacDonald, Washburn University

8. Multiple Sclerosis: Available Therapies, Current Research, and Future Directions for Treatment - Tara Flinchbaugh Fairleigh Dickinson University

9. A Review of the Etiology and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease - Navneet K. Gill, Fairleigh Dickinson University

THEME SECTION FOCUS ON IBOGAINE

10. Ibogaine as an Anti-Addiction Drug?- Mary M. Mazzei, Fairleigh Dickinson University

11. The Putative Effects of Ibogaine in Human Study - Giselle G. Chang, Fairleigh Dickinson University

12. Mechanisms of Action of the Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine - Jennifer Rosencrance, Fairleigh Dickinson University

WEB PUBLISHED ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTS

13. Teen Movies of the 1980’s and 1990’s: A Media Content Analysis- Nancy Berens, Felisha Crutcher, and Wendy Johnson , The College of St. Catherine

14. Commute Predictability, Work Productivity, and Driver Stress of Employees that Commute - Tonia B. Miller, University of West Florida, Jennifer L. Lucas, Agnes Scott College

NEW FOR PUBLICATION IN VOL 16, 2002

15. Making Connections in Neuroscience: Aging, Cancer, Cocaine Addiction and Neurotheology in Relation to Genetics - Alexandra Tuluca, Fairleigh Dickinson University

 

 

Faculty Advisor Editorial Commentary

One aspect of JPBS which sets it apart from other journals publishing student contributions is the inclusion of a theme section. Volume 10 focused upon the efficacy of naltrexone (ReVia) as a potential treatment drug for alcoholism. Volume 11 focused upon the impact of nicotine-containing products (435,000 Americans a year, and perhaps 3 million people world-wide die prematurely from exposure to nicotine-containing products). Volume 12 focused on the effects of methcathinone as a drug of abuse rampant in Russia. Volume 13 focused on the effects of caffeine; the drug most consumed worldwide. Volume 14 focused on the testosterone-like effects of steroids. In this issue, we are pleased to present manuscripts that provide overviews of Ibogaine.

In closing, I once again congratulate the student staff for their time and efforts to bring this volume to print. I thank the FDU-Madison Campus Administrators and Mr. Gregory O. Buck, President Penny Press, Madison, NJ, for his publishing talents that continue to make our journal a pleasure to read. Lastly, this journal serves as an example that students who are fortunate enough to have found caring and creative mentors can and will become published.

My Regards, Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D.,JPBS Faculty Advisor

 

 

 

CREDITS

JPBS Volume 15 - STUDENT OFFICERS

CO-EDITORS: Herardine Lacrete and Raymond Brock-Murray

STUDENT WEB MANAGER: Yahav Shoost

FEATURING the joint editioral efforts by students from both FDU and Montclair State Univ.

STUDENT REVIEWERS (In no particular order)
(* Signifies Montclair State Univ.)

Herardine Lacrete
Rachael Anznino
Meredith Gordon
Erin Hansen
Barbara Donovan
Gina Fioriglio
Cindy Ventricelli
Joseph GalassoRaymond Brock-Murray
*Gina Lardi
*Toko Yokkaichi
*Amanda Wolf
*Lori Caserta
*Amanda Johnson
Matthew Spinale
Makeisha LeeJess Martin
Patricia Petrone
Jennifer Durham
 

INVITED REVIEWERS

Julian Paul-Keenan, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Elizabeth Nissim, Ph. D. Fairleigh Dickinson University

Jennifer Siler, M.A./MBA, Fairleigh Dickinson University

Jane Cooper, M.A., Fairleigh Dickinson University

HONORABLE MENTION

Lucy A. Quatrella, Ph. D., Seton Hall (*Lifetime Journal Member)

ART, GRAPHIC DESIGN & COMPUTER CONSULTANT Laura Duncan

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Putative Dendritic Changes Following Corpus Callosotomy in Human Cortex: A Quantitative and Qualitative Case Study

Johanna Creswell, Melody Hrubes, and Bob Jacobs

Colorado College, Laboratory of Quantitative Neuromorphology

Little is known about the long term neuromorphological consequences of corpus callosotomy in human cerebral cortex. To this end, we examined the dendritic systems of supragranular pyramidal neurons in 3 cortical areas (Brodmann’s areas 4, 10, and 44) across both hemispheres. Tissue was obtained post-mortem from two male participants, ages 47 and 72, who had had corpus callosotomies at age 13 and 43 respectively (possibly presumably due to intractable epilepsy). After processing sections with a Golgi-Kopsch technique, 15 neurons were quantified per brain region (N = 90) on a Neurolucida computer/microscope. Cells were evaluated for total dendritic length, mean segment length, dendritic segment count, dendritic spine number, and dendritic spine density.Significant differences were found among regions, but no consistent pattern was revealed in terms of regional variability. Overall, hemispheric differences were not significant. Further evaluation of the tissue revealed an unusual sub-population of deep layer III pyramidal neurons, each with an extensive, asymmetric, tap-root basilar dendrite. These were located predominately in Broca’s area, but were also found in other regions. Quantitative analysis of 34 of these cells revealed that they were equivalent in dendritic length to other pyramidal neurons, with fewer but longer branch segments. This unusual sub-population of pyramidal neurons may represent long-term dendritic alterations in response to callosotomy.

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Motivational Concepts of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers As Modeled after Aristotle’s Eudaimonia

Laura Monique Goodson
Mentor: Dr. Dennis E. Schell

The George Washington University
Essay, no Abstract necessary

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The Impact of Romantic Perfectionism on Relationship Affect

Nina M. Jackson and William E. Snell Jr.

Southeast Missouri State University

The concept of perfectionism has attracted considerable attention from psychological researchers. More recently, the study of perfectionism has expanded into the area of intimacy. The current study was conducted to better understand how perfectionism may be related to the area of relationship affect. The results indicated that relationship depression and relationship anxiety were positively associated with a variety of perfectionism constructs. Relationship satisfaction and relationship esteem were associated with a variety of perfectionism constructs, as well. The discussion focuses on the implications of the present study.

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Birth Rank in Eating Disorders

Sarah T. Shafer

Mentor Faith Gilroy, Ph. D.

Loyola College

The relationships among birth order, eating disorder tendencies, and satisfaction with life were examined. Participants included 44 undergraduate students at a comprehensive university. The participants filled out a questionnaire that consisted of demographic facts, questions about their birth order, the Eating Attitudes Test and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Based on previous research, the first prediction was that first born children would report unhealthier eating habits than later born. A significant positive correlation was found, supporting this prediction. It was further predicted that an inverse relationship would be found between eating disorder tendencies and satisfaction with life. These results were discussed in terms of a better understanding of possible antecedents of eating disorders and of potential new treatments.

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Observational Learning Versus Written Instruction

Allison J. DeLoy and Amber Altermatt

Mentor: Thomas J. Thieman

College of Saint Catherine

An experiment to determine the effects of observation with written instruction versus written instruction alone in motor learning is described. Female college students were asked to tie a single Cordovan knot using a leather lacing kit when given with or without a video demonstration. Statistically significant results were not found between the two groups for completion time or number of successful knots. However, statistically significant results were found in the correlation of completion time and number of successfully completed knots across all participants. Significant results were also found in the mean time to complete a single successful knot. The results provide useful information concerning learning techniques and support previous findings on the benefits of observational learning.

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Fetishism: An Approach to Treatments

Mukta Gadkari

The College of St. Catherine

This work explores fetishism, its definition, major features, and the methods employed to attempt treatment. The 2 major therapeutic approaches studied are Pharmacological and Cognitive-Behavioral. Some of the primary treatments used for both approaches are discussed with special regard to their advantages and disadvantages. Since fetishism is a disorder that is rarely reported (besides there being insufficient data in terms of the prevalence of the disorder itself), the efficacy of the treatments remain unknown. In summary, a comparison of the treatments in light of the benefits and drawbacks of the disorder are made.

 

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The Effectiveness of Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy with At-Risk Adolescents

Mark J. Bowers and Pamelyn M. MacDonald

Washburn University

Therapy with children is not a simple task. Some children are more approachable than others, and in order to reach certain children, a nontraditional approach may need to be employed by the therapist. Although many techniques currently exist to help engage children in the therapy process, very little research has been conducted on the use of animals as co-facilitators. The present work examined the effectiveness of utilizing horses as co-facilitators in the therapeutic process when working with at-risk adolescents. It was hypothesized that contact between a specially trained horse and an adolescent would allow therapeutic goals to be reached in a nontraditional and nonthreatening manner.

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Multiple Sclerosis: Available Therapies, Current Research, and Future Directions for Treatment

Tara Flinchbaugh

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath that insulates cells in the central nervous system (CNS). This demyelination interferes with nerve conduction and causes various physical and cognitive impairments depending on the location of the damage. MS is considered to be an autoimmune disease where the body attacks its own tissue. The etiology remains unknown, but current research suggests immunologic, viral, and environmental involvement. Efficacy of treatments that are currently available are addressed. Also discussed are currently experimental as well as other theoretical treatment approaches for future directions in MS therapies.

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A Review of the Etiology and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Navneet K. Gill

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent disorders that persist within elderly populations today. Families, caretakers, and practitioners are continually faced with the dilemma of a loved one being diagnosed with AD, for its symptoms can be devastating for the individual who is afflicted, as well as their families. Due to memory loss, attention problems, and the confusion that occurs, afflicted persons endure multifaceted problems. The actual cause of AD is not yet determined, treatment capabilities are limited to a few medications, despite an impressive of research conducted.

 

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THEME SECTION FOCUS ON STEROIDS

Ibogaine as an Anti-Addiction Drug?

Mary M. Mazzei

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Could the root of an African plant contain a substance to combat addiction? This review will serve as a focus for a substance that has been studied for the past 40 years. The Tabernanthe iboga is a shrub that grows in Central West Africa and is known as the carrier of the drug ibogaine. Ibogaine is a recently developed drug, which has become popular due to its ability to interrupt addiction to hard drugs, such as, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol and nicotine.

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The Putative Effects of Ibogaine in Human Study

Giselle G. Chang

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid derived from the root bark of Tabernanthe iboga (Apocynacea family). Ibogaine is used by the indigenous peoples of equatorial Africa as an aphrodisiac, a hunting aid, for resistance to fatigue and hunger, and for medicinal and religious purposes. Its therapeutic benefits were inadvertently discovered by an American named Howard Lotsof, who identified its antiaddictive effects in the treatment of substance dependence. Ibogaine is postulated to be an interrupter of drug addiction (e.g., heroin, methadone, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine) by interrupting withdrawal symptoms and attenuating or eliminating cravings. The efficacy of Ibogaine in the treatment of human participants will be examined.

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Mechanisms of Action of the Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine

Jennifer Rosencrance

Fairleigh Dickinson University

 

The development of a drug that can potentially treat drug dependency with minimal withdrawal and relapse symptoms is highly desired. Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid, has been shown to reduce addiction to opiates, stimulants, alcohol, and nicotine in animal models. However, the full mechanisms of action of ibogaine remains unknown. Some of the hypothesized mechanisms include that the drug may decrease levels of dopamine, increase levels of serotonin, have a long-lasting depot effect or metabolite, modify properties of neurotransmitter vesicles, alter electrical activity at ion channels, and alter binding at kappa-opioid receptors.

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Web-published accepted manuscripts

Teen Movies of the 1980’s and 1990’s: A Media Content Analysis

Nancy Berens, Felisha Crutcher, and Wendy Johnson

The College of St. Catherine

Research stemming from the learning theory concludes there is a growing amount of evidence that the media impacts human behavior. It is found that media has powerful effects for three reasons: children spend more time with the mass media than their parents, they glamorize the risky behaviors, and their parents have “shirked “ their parental responsibilities onto the media. This study is guided by the premise that teens live through experience and that the media influences behavior. This study is a content analysis of movies from the 80’s and 90’s where it is believed that the 80’s movies and 90’s movies will depict teens social behaviors and values regarding relationships, sex, and violence, whereas the 90’s movies will have more explicit content. The findings concluded that the hypothesis was supported with the exception of sibling relations when compared between the movies from the 80’s and 90’s. Supporting the premise that “teens live through experience” and that the media influences behavior, this research concludes that behaviors displayed by teens in society may be influenced by the portrayals of teen behaviors on the big and little screen.

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Commute Predictability, Work Productivity, and Driver Stress of Employees that Commute

Tonia B. Miller, University of West Florida

Jennifer L. Lucas, Agnes Scott College

The purpose of this research study was to investigate commute predictability, work productivity, and driver stress of commuters. A questionnaire was placed on the Internet, and the researchers recruited 323 participants from 30 states in the United States. The researchers hypothesized that commuters with more predictability in their commute would experience less driver stress and that commuters that felt less predictability would feel that their work productivity was lower. Both hypotheses were supported. Gender was also investigated in relation to commute predictability, work productivity, and driver stress of the commuters.

 

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New for publication in Vol 16, 2002

Making Connections in Neuroscience: Aging, Cancer, Cocaine Addiction and Neurotheology in Relation to Genetics

Alexandra Tuluca

Fairleigh Dickinson University

This paper is an informational review of some of the most recent advances in research in the fields of aging, cancer, cocaine addiction and neurotheology. The present review focuses on the underlying genetic basis of these topics. Given the completion of decoding the human genome, the possibility of discovering new medications for treating cancer, cocaine addiction and slowing the aging process and the diseases associated with it are almost limitless. Another recent area of study to emerge is called neurotheology. Research in this area is making a connection between the brain and religiousity. To what extent are humans determined by genes and brain processes? These are the ultimate questions.

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