The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1999

JPBS 1999

Volume 13, 1999

Terms and Conditions:

Copyright 1999 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 13, published Summer, 1999. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.

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If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $10.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:

Dr. Donalee Brown
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8974
E-mail: donalee@fdu.edu


Journal of Psychology

and the Behavioral Sciences

The Founding Student Managed Journal
for Student Research 1966-1999

Volume 13, 1999

(Abstracts only: check again soon for full text)

 

Contents

Faculty Editorial Commentary

Credits

1 Anabolic Steroid Use, Body Image, Psychiatric Effects and Addiction
William F. Staton, Jr., and Judy Kaplan, Morris County Addictions Recovery Center, Morristown, NJ and Fairleigh Dickinson University


8 Classical Conditioning of Aggressive Fin Display in Betta splendens: A Non-aversive Conditioning Procedure for the Fish
James H. Baños, Sponsor: Richard McKnight Nicholls State University


13 "I’m Not a Feminist, But....": Construction of a Feminist Attitude Scale
Jennifer Olivetti, Lori J. Nelson, Sandra B. Shanahan, and Megan Belew, Shippensburg University


20 Self-medication with Sucrose in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Corinna West and Jacqueline Berning
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs


27 Effects of Active and Passive Coping Stressors on Cardiovascular Response Patterns
Andria Black and William H. O' Brien, Bowling Green State University


34 Personality Disorders and Contraceptive Behavior in University Women
Carrie Melliges, Sponsor: William Snell
Southeast Missouri State University


41 The Effect of the Perceived Presence of Males on Expressions of Leadership in Adolescent Females
Laura Page, Shelagh Towson and Stewart Page
University of Windsor


50 Personality Disorders and Both Clinical Anger and Depression
Kenneth C. Miget and William Snell, Southeast Missouri State University


56 Personality Assessment and the Predictability of Employee Success in an Intangible Sales Environment
C. Alan Parks and Douglas Waldo, University of Sarasota


62 The Relationship Between Reading Level and Recidivism in a Sample of Huber Law Inmates
Jonathon E. Leatherbury, Loyola University of Chicago,
Institute of Human Resources and Industrial Relations


72 Behavioral Dysfunctions Resulting from Frontal Lobe Damage: A Case Study
Bethany K. Gaddis, Colorado College


THEME SECTION FOCUS ON CAFFEINE

84 Caffeine: A Therapeutic or Addictive Psychotropic Drug?
Sheila Slutsker, Fairleigh Dickinson University


91 An Overview of the Historical Background of Caffeine Intake: Withdrawal, Tolerance and Dependence
Nancy O'Connor, Fairleigh Dickinson University

 

 

Faculty Advisor Editorial Commentary

It is an honor to continue to be associated with the production of another outstanding issue of JPBS. "Lucky" Volume 13 of JPBS features manuscripts addressing steroid use, conditioned aggression in fighting fish, Feminist attitude scaling, sugar as self-medication in ADHD, coping stressors, personality disorders and contraceptive behavior, effect of males on leadership in females, personality disorders, brain injury behavioral dysfunctions, and reading level and inmate recidivism. One aspect of JPBS which sets it apart from other journals publishing student contributions is the inclusion of a theme section. Volume 10 focused upon the efficacy of naltrexone (ReVia) as a potential treatment drug for alcoholism. Volume 11 focused upon the impact of nicotine-containing products (435,000 Americans a year, and perhaps 3 million people world-wide die prematurely from the consumption of nicotine). Volume 13 focused on the effects of methcathinone as a drug of abuse now rampant in Russia. In this present issue, we are pleased to present two manuscripts that provide overviews of the worlds most consumed and relatively safe drug, caffeine. Our next issue (JPBS Volume 14, 2000) will focus upon steroids as a major drug of abuse for the beginning of the next century. We invite the submission of manuscripts that will interest and educate our readers on the hazards of steroids and steroid addiction as well as their usefulness as potential pharmacological treatments for illness.

One aspect of being the faculty advisor of JPBS is that I have the responsibility to acknowledge the efforts of those who that have made unique and dramatic contributions to psychology in general, and have positively impacted on the lives of their students and colleagues in particular. On behalf of all the student staff, I am honored to express our appreciation for 8 years of contributions to JPBS by Ms. Lucy A. Quatrella. Lucy has the distinction to have worked with vigor in the production of no less than SIX issues of the journal but her contributions extend far beyond production and this statement demands some unpacking.

I have known Lucy since 1993 when she took her last undergraduate class at Fairleigh Dickinson University (it just happened to be the first class I taught at FDU, Sensation & Perception). Lucy was an outstanding student and she helped me to improve my teaching style in that critical first year. I thought if were Lucy typical of FDU students that students from other institutions where I had worked previously (including Dartmouth College & Emory University) had serious competition. In the years since 1993, I have come to realize just how unique Lucy is. Her performance in my class was typical of her success in each class she completed at FDU. Her list of awards (Psychology Club and Psi Chi) and many other accomplishments have easily placed her in the category of student worthy of a Presidential Scholarship.

Lucy's dedication to our department and students was recognized by her hire as an Adjunct Professor, a shrewd decision by our Department Chair. Students acknowledged that Lucy was tough but fair and most of all she proved that she would go the "extra ten miles" with a student to facilitate learning, Lucy refuses to give up on any student until they have given up on themselves. I had the honor to team teach undergraduate Psychological Statistics and Experimental Methods with Lucy. We combined or teaching style strengths to develop a way of presenting statistics to students in a non-threatening, highly applicable and sometimes humorous manner. I am certain that all the students who have been in Lucy's classes will agree that her intellect is only matched by her caring. In my role as Coordinator of Graduate Studies, students often ask me "Why pay the tuition at FDU?" I reply " We have one of the most dedicated and student-oriented faculty," Lucy and my other colleagues EARN such acknowledgement daily.

As Lucy 's career continues to grow and takes her to places beyond FDU, we wish her well in her career as a professional psychologist. Without overstatement, Lucy will be a most welcome and valuable addition to whichever faculty is fortunate enough to hire her. Lucy's achievements serve as a model for FDU graduates and we are certain that she will continue to distinguish herself. Most of all we value her friendship. It is with this background that the JPBS staff expresses our deepest appreciation to Lucy and award her the first "*Life-time JPBS Membership."

Next, I dedicate this issue to the memory of Richmond E. Johnson, Ph.D. (Experimental Psychology) and a past full-professor/chair of the Moravian College Psychology Department since 1973. Dr. Johnson was a graduate of Lafayette College, the University of Connecticut, and he earned his Ph.D. in psychology from Lehigh University (topic: Stimulus Discrimination). He was a faculty member at Moravian College since 1959 and had earned the Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Awards for distinguished teaching in Psychology (1970). Rick's accomplishments extended far beyond the classroom. Father of four daughters and dedicated husband to his wife Lois, he was fundamental in establishing the Lehigh Valley Biofeedback Society as well as being a local self-taught artist producing over 100 oil paintings in a style he called "dynamic realism." Rick was oft quoted as saying that "I try to teach the relationships that exist among facts, ideas and concepts in my classes and my art does this for me." The fact is that Rick helped make the connection for thousands of students who were fortunate enough to attended his classes. I will relate one such story now.

In 1977, an undergraduate attending Moravian College questioned whether his chosen path in chemistry would be fulfilling. Leaving organic chemistry lab early one day, this student met with the Chairperson of Psychology to express an interest in studying the biological basis of behavior and consciousness. Rick smiled warmly at the student after hearing his story and said that were the student "up for the challenge," that psychology was the best discipline to start exploring these interests. After taking several psychology classes (including Rick's class in History and Systems of Psychology) the student realized Rick was right. The student trained to become a physiological psychologist and graduated with the first B.S. in Experimental Psychology awarded by Moravian College. Rick's guidance did not stop at graduation. Rick continued to suport this student through two Masters degrees, a Ph.D. and three postdoctoral positions as well as co-editing no less than 9 of the students' 44 publications up to 1994.

I thank my mentor, teacher, colleague, and friend, Rick, for the challenge that changed and enriched my life and for the example of teaching that guides and inspires me every time I enter a classroom. And, in return for his belief and friendship in me as a worthwhile student, I am committed to do my best to infect students with the excitement about psychology, the spark of which Rick helped fan into a flame. On behalf of all of Rick's students with similar stories, I express our collective thanks for his teaching and caring that serves as an exemplar for all teachers.

In closing, I thank the student staff for their time and efforts to bringing this volume to print. I thank the FDU-Madison Campus Provost, Dr. Peter Falley, and Dean Martin Green for the commitment of resources and support. A special acknowledgement of thanks is for our Department Chair, Dr. Robert M. Chell & his wife Beverly. I also thank Mr. Gregory O. Buck, President (Penny Press, 6th Street Madison, NJ 07940; 973 966-9292) for applying his considerable publishing expertise to promote our journal. Lastly, this journal serves as an example that students who are fortunate enough to find caring and creative will become published.

Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D., JPBS Faculty Advisor

 

Credits

JPBS Volume 13 STUDENT OFFICERS

CO-EDITORS Niketa Joshi and John D. Panyko

CO-EDITORS ELECT Heather DeYoung and Kalindi Bakshi

STUDENT WEBSITE MANAGER Yahav Shoost

STUDENT REVIEWERS ( in no particular order)

Niketa Joshi John D. Panyko Vincenza Paparella Lisa Barrington

Kalindi Bakshi Heather DeYoung Christina Garczynski Christina Jerome Elizabeth Nissim Kathleen Thomas Crista Trippodi Julie Nissim

INVITED REVIEWERS

Diane Keyser Wentworth, Ph.D., Fairleigh Dickinson University

Gary Dean Jaworski, Ph.D., Fairleigh Dickinson University

Jennifer Siler, M.A./MBA, Fairleigh Dickinson University

Jane Cooper, M.A., Fairleigh Dickinson University

Lucy A. Quatrella, Ph. D., Seton Hall (*Lifetime Journal Member)

Jacob van den Berg, Princeton University

Julian Paul Keenan, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School

ART, GRAPHIC DESIGN & COMPUTER CONSULTANT Laura Duncan

DEADLINE FOR THE NEXT EDITION EARLY DECISION IS FEBRUARY 15 th

Submissions must be sent directly to our Faculty Advisor:

Daniel J. Calcagnetti, JPBS Faculty Advisor

Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison

Department of Psychology M-AB1-01

285 Madison Ave., Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8974 Electronic mail: donalee@fdu.edu

JPBS is an annual periodical published by the Psychology Department of Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison, NJ. The review of manuscripts is the responsibility of our undergraduate and graduate journal student officers, coordinated by the current student editors. Volume 13, published 1999, Copyright © ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1999 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, NJ. Permission for reproduction in whole or in part must be obtained directly in writing from the Faculty Advisor, Dr. Daniel J. Calcagnetti. Our ISSN # is: 1061-6799; US copyright registration # for our past issue, Vol. 12, is TX-4-784-997. All JPBS text and correspondence were produced by a mighty G3/266 Power Macintosh, thanks to Steve again! The print font type is Arrus BT Roman, 9-14 point.

 



Anabolic Steroid Use, Body Image,
Psychiatric Effects, and Addiction

William F. Staton, Jr. and Judy Kaplan
Morris County Addictions Recovery Center, Morristown, NJ
and Fairleigh Dickinson University


Research articles are reviewed regarding the effects of anabolic steroid use. The first article focuses on the relationships among body image, eating disorders, psychological characteristics, and steroid use. A second article constructs a profile of steroid users in relationship to narcissism and empathy. The last article researches the neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids on individuals without prior steroid use. It is concluded that research is needed to address 3 hypotheses raised in this review. These are: 1) that anabolic steroid users choose to do so as a result of psychological and sociological factors, 2) that anabolic steroid use produces neuropsychiatric effects that reinforce repeated use, and 3) that anabolic steroid use produces psychological effects that are similar to or precursors of personality disorders which have comorbidity with substance abuse disorders.



Classical Conditioning of Aggressive Fin Display in Betta splendens: A
Non-aversive Conditioning Procedure For The Fish

James H. Baños
Sponsor: Richard McKnight
Nicholls State University

Classical conditioning of aggressive fin display in Betta splendens was investigated. Male Bettas (n = 10) were conditioned using a red light as the CS, and mirror reflection as the US. Subjects that underwent 60 conditioning and 60 extinction trials were compared to a control group (n = 10). The independent variable was contingent versus random presentations of the CS and US. The dependent variable was the percentage of aggressive fin display to the CS on each of 12 test trials. During conditioning, the experimental group showed a significantly higher number of responses on test trials than both the control group and the experimental group during extinction. These findings replicate the phenomenon reported by Thompson and Sturm (1965a & b), with refinements including larger subject groups, inclusion of a valid control group, and a different conditioning apparatus.



"I'm Not a Feminist, But . . . ":
Construction of a Feminist Attitudes Scale

Jennifer Olivetti, Lori J. Nelson, Sandra B. Shanahan
and Megan Belew
Shippensburg University

In order to develop a brief and psychometrically sound measure of acceptance of feminist ideas, 3 studies were conducted using 2 samples of students and 1 sample of nonstudents. The 8-item Feminist Attitudes Scale developed is theoretically based, brief, reliable, valid, showed no "ceiling effect," and showed no social desirability response bias; thus it avoids the problems identified in reviews of previous instruments. In addition, these psychometric properties were confirmed with both students and nonstudents. The results also showed the necessity of measuring feminist attitudes without reference to the feminist label, especially outside of academic settings.



Self-medication with Sucrose in
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Corinna West and Jacqueline Berning
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

This article reviews literature describing a possible neurobiological basis for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The importance of ADHD as a risk factor for substance abuse is discussed along with genetic evidence and a review of Khantzian's self-medication theory. Studies linking sucrose intake and neurotransmitter deficits are presented to support a hypothesis of increased dietary stimulant use in subjects with ADHD. Initial anecdotal evidence is presented along with a possible experimental design.



Effects of Active and Passive Coping Stressors
on Cardiovascular Response Patterns

Andria L. Black and William H. O'Brien
Bowling Green State University


Previous studies of cardiovascular response patterns (CRP) have illustrated the ways in which physiological measures are differentially affected in dissimilar stressor conditions. The present experiment studied CRP during active and passive coping stressors. The CRP of 20 female participants were monitored during baseline, relaxation, active coping stressor, passive coping stressor, and recovery. It was hypothesized that participants would experience significant increases in cardiovascular measures during an active coping Stroop color and word stressor task, and significant decreases in cardiovascular measures during a passive coping condition. Heart rate (HR) was monitored throughout the experiment while systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained at specified intervals in each condition. Analysis of SBP, DBP, and HR indicated that, in comparison to baseline, participants exhibited significantly greater cardiovascular measures during active coping. During passive coping, participants exhibited DBP significantly greater than baseline, depressed mean HR, and no significant changes in SBP. These findings support the hypothesis that cardiovascular functioning varies with respect to differential conditions of stress.

Personality Disorders and Contraceptive Behavior
in University Women

Carrie Melliges and William E. Snell, Jr.
Southeast Missouri State University


DSM-IV personality disorders and contraceptive behaviors. To accomplish this, a sample of university female students were asked to complete a measure of personality disorders, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and a measure of reliable and effective contraceptive behavior, the Contraceptive Behavior Scale. Correlational analyses indicated that more unreliable and ineffective contraceptive behavior was found to be associated with greater schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder symptomology. The discussion focuses on the diverse findings associated with the different personality disorders.



The Effect of the Perceived Presence of Males on Expressions of Leadership
in Adolescent Females

Laura Page, Shelagh Towson, and Stewart Page
University of Windsor

Many single-gender organizations for girls have been assumed to increase the skills of their members in terms of leadership and autonomy. The present study tested the hypothesis that the perceived presence of males would inhibit adolescent females' expressions of leadership during a proposed camping excursion. Participants were 60 females who were Pathfinders, aged 10-14, members of the Girl Guides of Canada. In Group 1, 30 participants were asked to role play participation in, and respond as if they were attending, a camping experience in which all participants were expected to be female. All then completed an inventory which assessed the degree to which they expressed leadership in relation to the camp, for example, by volunteering to lead or supervise one or more activities. In Group 2, a mixed-gender condition, another 30 participants role-played participation in a similar camp but with the expectation that boys (from Scouts Canada) would be also present. Data collected on a measure of leadership were analyzed by means of analysis of covariance, linear regression, and partial correlation. Each analysis found that participants expecting a single-gender experience showed significantly higher leadership and initiative scores (at p < .038), compared to participants expecting a mixed-gender experience. These data showed that the anticipated presence of males can serve to inhibit expressions of leadership and related behaviors in female adolescents. Some implications of this finding are discussed.

 

Personality Disorders and Both Clinical Anger and Depression

Kenneth C. Miget and William E. Snell, Jr.
Southeast Missouri State University


There has been considerable research on personality disorders and feelings of depression, but relatively little research has examined the association between personality disorders and anger. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between personality disorder symptomology and both anger and depression. To accomplish this, a nonclinical sample (i. e., a sample of university students) was asked to complete a measure of personality disorders (PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994), the Clinical Anger Scale (Snell et al., 1995), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck et al., 1967). Correlational analyses indicated that both clinical anger and clinical depression were both found to be positively associated with the symptomology of all 12 DSM-IV personality disorders.



Personality Assessment and the Predictability of
Employee Success in an Intangible Sales Environment

C. Alan Parks and Douglas Waldo
University of Sarasota


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between scores on one personality assessment instrument, the Comprehensive Personality Profile (CPP), and sales performance of employees of a major insurance company. Also assessed was the relationship between job tenure and sales performance. This research evaluated the CPP scores of 125 insurance agents who scored high on the instrument’s measure of response accuracy. Results of the study indicate significant correlation between high accuracy CPP scores and sales performance, defined as average monthly commissions earned. As expected, job tenure, or length of time on the job, was a strong indicator of sales performance.

The Relationship Between Reading Level and Recidivism
In a Sample of Huber Law Inmates

Jonathon E. Leatherbury
Loyola University of Chicago Institute of Human Resources and Industrial
Relations


This study was conducted to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading levels between inmates who are first-time offenders and inmates who are repeat offenders. Analyses revealed a significant difference in obtained reading level between first-time offender and repeat offender conditions. Also a significant, negative correlation was found to describe the relationship between reading level and recidivism. The findings indicate that repeat offenders have a significantly lower reading ability than first-time offenders, and that a negative correlation best describes the relationship between reading level and recidivism. The effect of poor reading ability often leads to frustration, which in turn, may lead to deliquent behavior. The results of this study can be used in association with other reliable research to ultimately reduce the number of repeat offenders in our jail and prison systems.

Behavioral Dysfunctions Resulting from
Frontal Lobe Damage: A Case Study

Bethany K. Gaddis
Colorado College


The present study tracked the recovery and rehabilitation of 1 traumatically brain injured patient through therapy sessions, and by examining doctor reports and neuropsychological testing in the acute rehabilitation unit at Penrose Hospital in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The patient, a 26-year-old male, was admitted with a left temporal contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, bitemporal skull fractures, and subsequent bifrontal subdural hygromas. He displayed perseveration and communication disturbances in daily interaction and neuropsychological tests. It was hypothesized that these deficits were the result of frontal lobe damage. The present case study was undertaken to link specific brain damage to the subsequent behavioral dysfunctions. With continued social support and outpatient therapy sessions, the prognosis was for a good recovery.



Caffeine: A Therapeutic or Addictive Psychotropic Drug?

Sheila S. Slutsker
Fairleigh Dickinson University


A major psychoactive drug found in soft drinks, tea, coffee, headache medications, and chocolate candy is caffeine. For this reason, caffeine is the most consumed drug in the world. The objective of this review is to present an overview of caffeine’s effects and, therefore, build a basis to evaluate whether caffeine may be best considered as a harmless additive and effective medication or as a compound with increasing potential to contribute to addictive brain processes.



An Overview of the Historical Background of Caffeine Intake: Tolerance,
Withdrawal and Dependence

Nancy E. O' Connor
Fairleigh Dickinson University


The purpose of this overview is to examine caffeine intake, effects, and to determine whether caffeine can induce dependence. A historical view of caffeine and physiological responses to caffeine are summarized. Evidence from several studies regarding caffeine's ability to act as a reinforcer, caffeine withdrawal syndrome, caffeine tolerance and caffeine dependence are discussed. The conclusion is caffeine dependence does exist and can pose a problem for some users.

 

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Any comments or questions? Please write to Dr. Donalee Brown at donalee@fdu.edu