The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1998
Volume 12, 1998
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Copyright 1998 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 12, published Summer, 1998. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.
If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $10.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:
Dr. Donalee Brown
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940
Phone: (973) 443-8974
Journal of Psychology
and the Behavioral Sciences
The Founding Student Managed Journal
for Student Research 1966-1998
Volume 12, Summer 1998
(Abstracts only: check again soon for full text)
Review of the Psychometric Properties of the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Peggy A. McGovern
This work is a critical review of the psychometric properties of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). A general background of the MBTI, Myers' theory, and Jung's theory are presented. The author examines the validity and reliability of the MBTI, attempting to reconcile the conflicting research. It is concluded that there are specific problems concerning the construct and content validity of the indicator, while the predictive validity is found moderately acceptable. The reliability is also found to have marginal acceptability, and it is shown that continuous scores produce greater reliability than do type-category scores. It is further concluded that the problems found with aspects of the validity and the scoring are due to the inconsistencies between Myers' theory and Jung's theory.
An earlier version of this paper satisfied some requirements for a History and Systems course. The author would like to express appreciation to Dr. Francis C. Dane for comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Peggy A. McGovern, 1092 Northumberland Court, West Palm Beach, FL, 33414. Electronic mail may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carbamazepine in Psychiatric Disorders: A Mechanism of Action
Jonathan A. Morgan
Seton Hall University
The literature regarding the evidence and theories underlying the mechanism of action of carbamazepine (CBZ), which may be involved in various psychiatric disorders, is explored. The primary sites of CBZ action in the brain do not only result in attenuation of the motoric, somatosensory and affective components of paroxysmal cerebral dysrhythmias, but also allow for CBZ to serve as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. The attenuation of brain activity produced by CBZ suggests a common brain substrate between epileptic and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to mania, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourettes syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder.
The author thanks Drs. L. Jensen, Joel E. Morgan, Susan T. Taylor, Thomas Walsh and Robert Stackman for their time and suggestions to strengthen this manuscript. Robin and Dan Calcagnetti also contributed improvements via their discussions of brain activity and drug effects. Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Jonathan A. Morgan, 50 Thompson Street, Apt #3, Raritan, NJ 08869.
Relations Between Study Habits, Sleep, Stress, and
Eileen E. Han and Inna D. Rivkin
University of California, Los Angeles
The relations between study habits, sleep, stress, and academic performance were investigated. Aspects of study habits identified were study environment, time management, and strategies for learning. Good study habits were expected to yield higher academic performance and allow for more sleep. Sleep was expected to result in lower stress and higher academic performance. University undergraduates (N = 51) from 3 introductory chemistry sections completed a survey assessing these factors. Results indicated that time management and strategies for learning, but not study environment, were associated with higher academic performance. Subjective measures of sleep (i.e. perceived amount of restorative sleep) predicted higher academic achievement and lower stress, but objective measures of sleep (i.e. reported hours of sleep) did not. Discussion focuses on the interplay of factors influencing achievement, and on the ways that students can improve academic performance.
Eileen E. Han, Inna D. Rivkin (co-author and faculty sponsor), Shelley E. Taylor, faculty sponsor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles. Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Inna D. Rivkin, Graduate Mailroom, UCLA, Department of Psychology Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563. Email may be sent to email@example.com.
Efficacy of the Use of Children's Human Figure Drawings as a
Projective Psychological Measure
Alan W. Brue
University of Florida
For quite some time, human figure drawings (HFDs) have been used in the field of psychology. HFDs have both projective (personality) and non-projective (developmental and intellectual maturity) aspects. Because it is not a validated measure, the psychological community is unable to agree on its effectiveness as a diagnostic tool. Each position has its own merits. It is left up to each clinician to decide upon the use of HFDs in his or her own practice.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Alan W. Brue, 2006 NW 55th Ave., Apt. H-5, Gainesville, FL 32653-2103, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Patterns of Deception in Human Mating Strategies
Eleni Dimoulas, Sheri Wender, Julian Paul Keenan,
Gordon Gallup, Jr., and Nicole Goulet
University at Albany, State University of New York
According to evolutionary theory among mammals, females make the greatest parental investment and, consequently, bear the greatest risk when mating is considered. Among humans, males and females use particular gender-defined strategies in mating. Undergraduate students (n = 81 females, n = 39 males) completed surveys focusing on how they presented themselves during dating. It was found that both genders exaggerate traits at approximately the same rate; however, the type of trait targeted for exaggeration is highly gender specific. Males tend to deceive about their finances and commitment to a long-term relationships, while females deceive about their physical attributes. These results support the hypothesis of gender differences in deception during dating.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Dr. Julian Paul Keenan, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Kirstein 452, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215.
The Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Personality:
A Contextualist Perspective
Mary Furlong and Daniel J. Svyantek
The University Of Akron
The Attraction-Selection-Assimilation (ASA) model of organizational climate was investigated by seeing how personality variables (extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) affected reactions to organizational climates (Autocratic versus Participative) in a recruitment situation. A total of 73 students (n = 26 men and n = 47 women) from a large Midwestern university voluntarily participated in the study. Each of the participants read 1 of 2 company descriptions (Autocratic or Participative) and then filled out 3 questionnaires. The first questionnaire related to a company's climate, the second was the NEO 5-Factor Inventory, and the final form was a job elements inventory. The results support a contextualist perspective of climate. Personality variables prime individuals to perceive and select organizational climates in which they will have a high probability of succeeding.
Please direct all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Daniel J. Svyantek, Ph.D. Psychology Department, The University of Akron, Akron,OH 44325-4301. Phone (330) 972-6705, email@example.com.
The Influence of Management and Supervision in Organizational Transformation Efforts
Frances L. H. Svyantek, Daniel J. Svyantek and Milton D. Hakel
Technical Education Psychology Department Psychology Department
The Univ. of Akron The Univ. of Akron Bowling Green State Univ.
This research investigated the effects of an organizational change effort to create a new management philosophy at a large petrochemical company. The use of new behaviors modeling this new management philosophy by division or departmental level managers had a greater effect on lower-level employee's performance of these behaviors than did their immediate supervisors' modeling of these behaviors. It was found that the opportunity to use the behaviors was essential in the adoption of these behaviors among lower-level employees. The perceived efficacy of the behaviors, however, was not a significant predictor of these behaviors. These results are interpreted as supporting organizational culture as a major moderator of the impact of organizational transformation efforts.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Frances L. H. Svyantek, 454 Woodrow St., Akron, OH 44303-1941, phone (330) 867-9407.
Psychosocial Factors Show Little Relationship to
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Recovery
Jennifer M. Camacho and Leonard A. Jason
It is unclear what factors might influence the recovery from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). In the present study, 45 participants represent 3 groups: patients who had recovered from CFS (Recovered), patients who had not recovered from CFS (Non-recovered), and a non-CFS control group (Healthy). Participants were given psychosocial measures that tapped optimism, coping behaviors, stress, support, and fatigue levels. Analyses show no significant differences between groups on measures of optimism, stress, and social support, although a few significant differences were noted on measures of fatigue and coping. Not surprisingly, those who had recovered from CFS had less fatigue and spent less time focusing on symptoms than those who had not recovered. Those who had recovered in comparison to Healthy controls, more often used positive reinterpretation and growth strategies, and thus, may have benefitted from the experience of being ill in some ways. The findings are consistent with what would be expected for persons dealing with a chronic illness.
Financial support for this study was provided by NIAID grant number AI36295. Requests for reprints should be sent to Leonard A. Jason, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, DePaul University, 2219 N. Kenmore, Chicago, IL 60613.
Application of Wilber's Developmental Model to the Developmental Theories of Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade
Fairleigh Dickinson University
With such a wide variety of developmental theories in existence, is it possible that they might all share some core fundamental concepts? This is exactly what Ken Wilber proposes in his book entitled, A Brief History of Everything. In this book Wilber states that "although the actual details and the precise meanings of that developmental sequence are still hotly debated...(there) are orienting generalizations (which) show us with a great deal of agreement, where the important forests are located even if we can't agree on how many trees they contain" (Wilber, 1996, p. 18). If this is true, then it will be possible to find his proposed fulcrums of development embedded in the developmental theories of other theorists, such as Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Ms. MaryBeth Chaoussoglou, 17 Lenart Place, Hopewell Jct., NY 12533.
The Everyday Application of Hermeneutics as a Thinking Strategy
Dana M. Pfeil
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Hermeneutics is defined as the art and science of interpretation (as it applies to text or concepts). Knowledge of how to apply this thought strategy can enable an individual to more successfully communicate and be understood by others. This method allows for expanding the depths of communicating participants to strive for, and perhaps reach, valuable insights. The "interior world" (as opposed to the external world) is what underlies the essence of human existence. Given a rigorous hermeneutical approach, a human can gain an understanding of the interior of another. The "Left Hand and Right Hand Paths" of the Quadrant Model proposed by Ken Wilber are discussed in the context of creating a better way to conceptualize about interpretation and communication in the context of rational and transrational (mystical) ways of knowing.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Ms. Dana M. Pfeil, 824 Boesel Ave, Manville, NJ 08835
Methcathinone: Implications of Use and Complications of Misuse
Hubert "Hap" Moran
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Methcathinone is a synthesized derivative from cathinone, an alkaloid of Khat shrub (Catha edulis Forsk). This stimulant drug is an antidepressant and appetite suppressant, but is mainly consumed for its and euphoric effects. While widespread abuse of this substance has not yet become epidemic in the U.S., it represents a significant substance abuse problem in the former Soviet Union. This review article examines the history and the effects of the use of methcathinone and the consequences of its misuse while considering how to prevent methcathinone from becoming the next high profile drug of abuse in the U.S.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Hubert "Hap" Moran, 558 Kenwood Place, Teaneck, NJ 07666-1650.
A Brief Review of Preclinical Research Regarding Methcathinone
Gilbert A. Nicholas
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Methcathinone is a drug of abuse that has been used mainly outside the United States for over two decades. Given the street name "cat", methcathinone is a derivative of the naturally-occurring psychomotor stimulant, cathinone. Use of methcathinone in the U.S. was first recorded in the late 1980s, and is spreading. This work is a review of recent experimentation using rodents and primates to determine the effects of methcathinone on various somatic systems as well as the potential for abuse, toxicity and lethality. The themes are to review evidence for pharmacological blockade and assess the relevance of empirical results for human drug users.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Gilbert A. Nicholas, 107 Washington Dr., Watchung, NJ 07060.
Journal of Psychology and The Behavioral Sciences Volume 12, Summer 1998
Faculty Editorial Commentary
1 Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Peggy A. McGovern, Mercer University
15 Carbamazepine in Psychiatric Disorders: A Mechanism of Action
Jonathan A. Morgan, Seton Hall University
23 Relations Between Study Habits, Sleep, Stress, and Academic Performance
Eileen E. Han and Inna D. Rivkin, University of California, Los Angeles
33 Efficacy of the Use of Children's Human Figure Drawings as a Projective Psychological Measure
Alan W. Brue, University of Florida
38 Patterns of Deception in Human Mating Strategies
Eleni Dimoulas, Sheri Wender, Julian Paul Keenan, Gordon Gallup, Jr., and Nicole Goulet, State University of New York at Albany
43 The Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Personality:
A Contextualist Perspective
Mary Furlong and Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron
54 The Influence of Management and Supervision in Organizational Transformation Efforts
Frances L. H. Svyantek1, Daniel J. Svyantek1 and Milton D. Hakel2, University of Akron1 and Bowling Green State University2
60 Psychosocial Factors Show Little Relationship to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Recovery
Jennifer M. Camacho and Leonard A. Jason, DePaul University
71 Application of Wilber's Developmental Model to the Developmental Theories of Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade
MaryBeth Chaoussoglou, Fairleigh Dickinson University
82 Everyday Hermeneutics
Dana Pfeil, Fairleigh Dickinson University
THEME SECTION FOCUS ON METHCATHINONE
86 Methcathinone: Implications of Use and Complications of Misuse
Hubert "Hap" Moran, Fairleigh Dickinson University
91 A Brief Review of the Preclinical Research Regarding Methcathinone
Gilbert A. Nicholas, Fairleigh Dickinson University
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On behalf of the faculty and staff at JPBS, I am pleased to affirm that we are committed to providing undergraduates and graduates with a forum for their accomplishments resulting from the faculty-student relationship. The mission of JPBS remains to encourage students to submit their work for publication as an indicator of mastering essential skills necessary for professional career development. Our readers will note that the topical areas of the published manuscripts within this issue are varied. We emphasize that contributions from all areas of psychology will be accepted for consideration.
It is a pleasure to have been involved in the production of another outstanding issue of JPBS. Volume 12 of this journal features manuscripts addressing the limitations of the Myers-Briggs personality indicator, a variety of brain disorders treatable with carbamazepine, academic performance relations to sleep and stress, children's drawing as a projective measure, the use of deception in human mating patterns, two manuscripts exploring organizational climate and transformation, psychosocial factors in recovery from fatigue and two manuscripts addressing transpersonal theory development and application via exploring the writings of Ken Wilber. It is gratifying to welcome articles in the area of Transpersonal Psychology as they have not appeared in our journal in the past. It is outstanding that FDU students have transformed their course-related content and written about cutting-edge developmental theories such as those presented by Ken Wilber and Jenny Wade. Again, I encourage potential authors to submit their articles from every content area in psychology.
One aspect of JPBS which sets it apart from other journals publishing student contributions is the inclusion of a theme section. Volume 10 focused upon the efficacy of naltrexone (ReVia) as a potential treatment drug for alcoholism. Volume 11 focused upon the impact of nicotine-containing products and the detriment to world-wide health (435,000 Americans a year, and perhaps as many as 3 million people world-wide die prematurely from the consumption of nicotine-containing products). This issue focuses on the effects of methcathinone as a drug of abuse that can be synthesized using common household chemicals and a common cold-remedy medication (ephedrine). Unlike cocaine or opiates, the production of methcathinone does not suffer from the limitation of available supply from foreign-grown coca or opium fields. The effects of methcathinone are not significantly different from methamphetamine and its use in America is on the rise. We are pleased to present two manuscripts that address an overview and the status of animal research involving methcathinone.
Our next issue (JPBS Volume 13) will highlight the effects of caffeine which is the most consumed drug in the world. Caffeine is a low level stimulant drug and has been examined as a potential treatment medication for obesity and hyperactivity disorder. A future theme topic for our issue in the year 2000 will focus upon steroids as a major drug of abuse for the next century. We invite the submission of manuscripts that will interest and educate our readers on the hazards of caffeine and steroid addiction as well as their usefulness as potential pharmacological treatments for illness.
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Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D., Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience
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JPBS Volume 12, 1998
CO-EDITORS Katherine Ressman and John D. Panyko
STUDENT WEBSITE MANAGER Yahav Shoost
STUDENT REVIEWERS ( in no particular order)
Jane Cooper Mara Drozdowski Niketa Joshi John D. Panyko
Lauren J. Scher Robin L. Calcagnetti Katherine Ressman Jennifer Cobb
Robert S. Ross Christina Garzcynski Elizabeth N. Nissim Paul Humecky
INVITED REVIEWERS from Fairleigh Dickinson University
Diane Keyser-Wentworth, Ph.D., Lucy A. Quatrella, M. A,
Jennifer Siler, M. A. and Daniel Minsky
ART, GRAPHIC DESIGN & COMPUTER CONSULTANT Laura Duncan
FACULTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF (The Buck Stops Here) Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D.
DEADLINE FOR THE NEXT EDITION EARLY DECISION IS FEBRUARY 15 th
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JPBS is an annual periodical published by the Psychology Department of Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison, NJ. The review of manuscripts is the responsibility of our undergraduate and graduate journal student officers coordinated by the current student editors. Volume 12, published Summer 1998, Copyright© ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1998 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N.J. Permission for reproduction in whole or in part must be obtained directly in writing from the Faculty Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Daniel J. Calcagnetti. Our ISSN # is: 1061-6799; US copyright registration # for our past issue, Vol. 11, is on record. All JPBS text and correspondence were produced by a G3/266 Power Macintosh, thanks again Steve! The print font type is Arrus BT Roman, 9-14 point.
STUDY HABITS, SLEEP, STRESS AND PERFORMANCE
EFFICACY OF CHILDREN'S HUMAN FIGURE DRAWINGS
DECEPTIVE MATING PATTERNS
MATING DECEPTION PATTERNS
CLIMATE AND PERSONALITY
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION
WILBER'S DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL
METHCATHINONE: HUMAN USE AND ABUSE
METHCATHINONE: ANIMAL RESEARCH FINDINGS
Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences,1998, Volume 12
Any comments or questions? Please write to Dr. Donalee Brown at email@example.com