The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1998

JPBS 1998

Volume 12, 1998

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Copyright 1998 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 12, published Summer, 1998. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.

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If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $10.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:

Dr. Donalee Brown
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8974
E-mail: donalee@fdu.edu


Journal of Psychology
and the Behavioral Sciences

The Founding Student Managed Journal

for Student Research 1966-1998

 

Volume 12, Summer 1998

(Abstracts only: check again soon for full text)

Review of the Psychometric Properties of the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Peggy A. McGovern
Mercer University

This work is a critical review of the psychometric properties of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). A general background of the MBTI, Myers' theory, and Jung's theory are presented. The author examines the validity and reliability of the MBTI, attempting to reconcile the conflicting research. It is concluded that there are specific problems concerning the construct and content validity of the indicator, while the predictive validity is found moderately acceptable. The reliability is also found to have marginal acceptability, and it is shown that continuous scores produce greater reliability than do type-category scores. It is further concluded that the problems found with aspects of the validity and the scoring are due to the inconsistencies between Myers' theory and Jung's theory.

Author Notes
An earlier version of this paper satisfied some requirements for a History and Systems course. The author would like to express appreciation to Dr. Francis C. Dane for comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Peggy A. McGovern, 1092 Northumberland Court, West Palm Beach, FL, 33414. Electronic mail may be sent to gatorboy@mindspring.com.

Carbamazepine in Psychiatric Disorders: A Mechanism of Action

Jonathan A. Morgan
Seton Hall University

The literature regarding the evidence and theories underlying the mechanism of action of carbamazepine (CBZ), which may be involved in various psychiatric disorders, is explored. The primary sites of CBZ action in the brain do not only result in attenuation of the motoric, somatosensory and affective components of paroxysmal cerebral dysrhythmias, but also allow for CBZ to serve as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. The attenuation of brain activity produced by CBZ suggests a common brain substrate between epileptic and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to mania, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourettes syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder.

Author Notes
The author thanks Drs. L. Jensen, Joel E. Morgan, Susan T. Taylor, Thomas Walsh and Robert Stackman for their time and suggestions to strengthen this manuscript. Robin and Dan Calcagnetti also contributed improvements via their discussions of brain activity and drug effects. Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Jonathan A. Morgan, 50 Thompson Street, Apt #3, Raritan, NJ 08869.

Relations Between Study Habits, Sleep, Stress, and
Academic Performance

Eileen E. Han and Inna D. Rivkin
University of California, Los Angeles

The relations between study habits, sleep, stress, and academic performance were investigated. Aspects of study habits identified were study environment, time management, and strategies for learning. Good study habits were expected to yield higher academic performance and allow for more sleep. Sleep was expected to result in lower stress and higher academic performance. University undergraduates (N = 51) from 3 introductory chemistry sections completed a survey assessing these factors. Results indicated that time management and strategies for learning, but not study environment, were associated with higher academic performance. Subjective measures of sleep (i.e. perceived amount of restorative sleep) predicted higher academic achievement and lower stress, but objective measures of sleep (i.e. reported hours of sleep) did not. Discussion focuses on the interplay of factors influencing achievement, and on the ways that students can improve academic performance.

Author Note
Eileen E. Han, Inna D. Rivkin (co-author and faculty sponsor), Shelley E. Taylor, faculty sponsor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles. Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Inna D. Rivkin, Graduate Mailroom, UCLA, Department of Psychology Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563. Email may be sent to irivkin@ucla.edu.



Efficacy of the Use of Children's Human Figure Drawings as a
Projective Psychological Measure

Alan W. Brue
University of Florida

For quite some time, human figure drawings (HFDs) have been used in the field of psychology. HFDs have both projective (personality) and non-projective (developmental and intellectual maturity) aspects. Because it is not a validated measure, the psychological community is unable to agree on its effectiveness as a diagnostic tool. Each position has its own merits. It is left up to each clinician to decide upon the use of HFDs in his or her own practice.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Alan W. Brue, 2006 NW 55th Ave., Apt. H-5, Gainesville, FL 32653-2103, abrue@yahoo.com.

Patterns of Deception in Human Mating Strategies

Eleni Dimoulas, Sheri Wender, Julian Paul Keenan,
Gordon Gallup, Jr., and Nicole Goulet

University at Albany, State University of New York


According to evolutionary theory among mammals, females make the greatest parental investment and, consequently, bear the greatest risk when mating is considered. Among humans, males and females use particular gender-defined strategies in mating. Undergraduate students (n = 81 females, n = 39 males) completed surveys focusing on how they presented themselves during dating. It was found that both genders exaggerate traits at approximately the same rate; however, the type of trait targeted for exaggeration is highly gender specific. Males tend to deceive about their finances and commitment to a long-term relationships, while females deceive about their physical attributes. These results support the hypothesis of gender differences in deception during dating.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Dr. Julian Paul Keenan, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Kirstein 452, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215.

The Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Personality:
A Contextualist Perspective

Mary Furlong and Daniel J. Svyantek
The University Of Akron


The Attraction-Selection-Assimilation (ASA) model of organizational climate was investigated by seeing how personality variables (extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) affected reactions to organizational climates (Autocratic versus Participative) in a recruitment situation. A total of 73 students (n = 26 men and n = 47 women) from a large Midwestern university voluntarily participated in the study. Each of the participants read 1 of 2 company descriptions (Autocratic or Participative) and then filled out 3 questionnaires. The first questionnaire related to a company's climate, the second was the NEO 5-Factor Inventory, and the final form was a job elements inventory. The results support a contextualist perspective of climate. Personality variables prime individuals to perceive and select organizational climates in which they will have a high probability of succeeding.

Author Note
Please direct all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Daniel J. Svyantek, Ph.D. Psychology Department, The University of Akron, Akron,OH 44325-4301. Phone (330) 972-6705, dsvyantek@uakron.edu.

The Influence of Management and Supervision in Organizational Transformation Efforts

Frances L. H. Svyantek, Daniel J. Svyantek and Milton D. Hakel
Technical Education Psychology Department Psychology Department
The Univ. of Akron The Univ. of Akron Bowling Green State Univ.


This research investigated the effects of an organizational change effort to create a new management philosophy at a large petrochemical company. The use of new behaviors modeling this new management philosophy by division or departmental level managers had a greater effect on lower-level employee's performance of these behaviors than did their immediate supervisors' modeling of these behaviors. It was found that the opportunity to use the behaviors was essential in the adoption of these behaviors among lower-level employees. The perceived efficacy of the behaviors, however, was not a significant predictor of these behaviors. These results are interpreted as supporting organizational culture as a major moderator of the impact of organizational transformation efforts.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Frances L. H. Svyantek, 454 Woodrow St., Akron, OH 44303-1941, phone (330) 867-9407.

 

Psychosocial Factors Show Little Relationship to
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Recovery

Jennifer M. Camacho and Leonard A. Jason
DePaul University


It is unclear what factors might influence the recovery from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). In the present study, 45 participants represent 3 groups: patients who had recovered from CFS (Recovered), patients who had not recovered from CFS (Non-recovered), and a non-CFS control group (Healthy). Participants were given psychosocial measures that tapped optimism, coping behaviors, stress, support, and fatigue levels. Analyses show no significant differences between groups on measures of optimism, stress, and social support, although a few significant differences were noted on measures of fatigue and coping. Not surprisingly, those who had recovered from CFS had less fatigue and spent less time focusing on symptoms than those who had not recovered. Those who had recovered in comparison to Healthy controls, more often used positive reinterpretation and growth strategies, and thus, may have benefitted from the experience of being ill in some ways. The findings are consistent with what would be expected for persons dealing with a chronic illness.

Author Notes
Financial support for this study was provided by NIAID grant number AI36295. Requests for reprints should be sent to Leonard A. Jason, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, DePaul University, 2219 N. Kenmore, Chicago, IL 60613.



Application of Wilber's Developmental Model to the Developmental Theories of Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade

MaryBeth Chaoussoglou
Fairleigh Dickinson University


With such a wide variety of developmental theories in existence, is it possible that they might all share some core fundamental concepts? This is exactly what Ken Wilber proposes in his book entitled, A Brief History of Everything. In this book Wilber states that "although the actual details and the precise meanings of that developmental sequence are still hotly debated...(there) are orienting generalizations (which) show us with a great deal of agreement, where the important forests are located even if we can't agree on how many trees they contain" (Wilber, 1996, p. 18). If this is true, then it will be possible to find his proposed fulcrums of development embedded in the developmental theories of other theorists, such as Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Ms. MaryBeth Chaoussoglou, 17 Lenart Place, Hopewell Jct., NY 12533.

The Everyday Application of Hermeneutics as a Thinking Strategy

Dana M. Pfeil
Fairleigh Dickinson University


Hermeneutics is defined as the art and science of interpretation (as it applies to text or concepts). Knowledge of how to apply this thought strategy can enable an individual to more successfully communicate and be understood by others. This method allows for expanding the depths of communicating participants to strive for, and perhaps reach, valuable insights. The "interior world" (as opposed to the external world) is what underlies the essence of human existence. Given a rigorous hermeneutical approach, a human can gain an understanding of the interior of another. The "Left Hand and Right Hand Paths" of the Quadrant Model proposed by Ken Wilber are discussed in the context of creating a better way to conceptualize about interpretation and communication in the context of rational and transrational (mystical) ways of knowing.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Ms. Dana M. Pfeil, 824 Boesel Ave, Manville, NJ 08835

Methcathinone: Implications of Use and Complications of Misuse

Hubert "Hap" Moran
Fairleigh Dickinson University


Methcathinone is a synthesized derivative from cathinone, an alkaloid of Khat shrub (Catha edulis Forsk). This stimulant drug is an antidepressant and appetite suppressant, but is mainly consumed for its and euphoric effects. While widespread abuse of this substance has not yet become epidemic in the U.S., it represents a significant substance abuse problem in the former Soviet Union. This review article examines the history and the effects of the use of methcathinone and the consequences of its misuse while considering how to prevent methcathinone from becoming the next high profile drug of abuse in the U.S.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Hubert "Hap" Moran, 558 Kenwood Place, Teaneck, NJ 07666-1650.

A Brief Review of Preclinical Research Regarding Methcathinone

Gilbert A. Nicholas
Fairleigh Dickinson University


Methcathinone is a drug of abuse that has been used mainly outside the United States for over two decades. Given the street name "cat", methcathinone is a derivative of the naturally-occurring psychomotor stimulant, cathinone. Use of methcathinone in the U.S. was first recorded in the late 1980s, and is spreading. This work is a review of recent experimentation using rodents and primates to determine the effects of methcathinone on various somatic systems as well as the potential for abuse, toxicity and lethality. The themes are to review evidence for pharmacological blockade and assess the relevance of empirical results for human drug users.

Author Note
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Gilbert A. Nicholas, 107 Washington Dr., Watchung, NJ 07060.


Journal of Psychology and The Behavioral Sciences Volume 12, Summer 1998
Contents
Faculty Editorial Commentary

1 Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Peggy A. McGovern, Mercer University

15 Carbamazepine in Psychiatric Disorders: A Mechanism of Action
Jonathan A. Morgan, Seton Hall University

23 Relations Between Study Habits, Sleep, Stress, and Academic Performance
Eileen E. Han and Inna D. Rivkin, University of California, Los Angeles

33 Efficacy of the Use of Children's Human Figure Drawings as a Projective Psychological Measure
Alan W. Brue, University of Florida

38 Patterns of Deception in Human Mating Strategies
Eleni Dimoulas, Sheri Wender, Julian Paul Keenan, Gordon Gallup, Jr., and Nicole Goulet, State University of New York at Albany

43 The Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Personality:
A Contextualist Perspective
Mary Furlong and Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron

54 The Influence of Management and Supervision in Organizational Transformation Efforts
Frances L. H. Svyantek1, Daniel J. Svyantek1 and Milton D. Hakel2, University of Akron1 and Bowling Green State University2

60 Psychosocial Factors Show Little Relationship to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Recovery
Jennifer M. Camacho and Leonard A. Jason, DePaul University

71 Application of Wilber's Developmental Model to the Developmental Theories of Freud, Sullivan, Allport, Erikson, and Wade
MaryBeth Chaoussoglou, Fairleigh Dickinson University

82 Everyday Hermeneutics
Dana Pfeil, Fairleigh Dickinson University

THEME SECTION FOCUS ON METHCATHINONE

86 Methcathinone: Implications of Use and Complications of Misuse
Hubert "Hap" Moran, Fairleigh Dickinson University

91 A Brief Review of the Preclinical Research Regarding Methcathinone
Gilbert A. Nicholas, Fairleigh Dickinson University

Provided that you have not read our journal before, allow us to provide a brief introduction. JPBS is a non-profit FDU student psychology organization. We are the original student managed journal for student research in psychology (first published in 1966). Our mission is to review research submissions from students and promote the student-mentor relationship leading to publication.

WE INVITE YOU and YOUR DEPARTMENT to subscribe to our latest edition. We feel that having a copy available in every Psychology Department for faculty and students to SEE AND READ is the best way to make students aware of this opportunity. PLEASE CIRCULATE THIS CALL TO ALL INTERESTED STUDENTS and FACULTY. If a Departmental or personal subscription is not possible at this time, please take the time to PHONE your library and request they contact us for subscription information. You can post our Call for Papers so students can learn about the opportunity to publish or visit our Web page at http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychweb.
To subscribe to JPBS Vol. 12 or our next edition (JPBS, Vol. 13, 1999), please photocopy or clip out and send the invoice page and a check for $10.00 payable in U. S. funds to the above address made out to "Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences." These funds cover some production and postage costs. Subscriptions must be reserved prior to publication. JPBS provides this information in service to our mission to promote the publication of research by worthy students. We are dedicated to pursue this mission into the next century and beyond.

Other Journals that highlight Student Publication/Research in Psychology include:
1) Der Zeitgeist: The Student Journal of Psychology (TM) (ISSN 1080-6725) is an electronic journal devoted to publishing the work of psychology undergraduate and graduate students. The journal is published annually on the World Wide Web during the month of July. All APA approved articles are considered.URL: Der Zeitgeist can be viewed at http://www.wwu.edu/~9140024/index.html
Submission Requirements: Manuscripts are required to meet the standards and guidelines approved in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed., 1994). Submit four typed double spaced manuscripts. Submit a second copy on a 3.5 in. diskette. Indicate word processor and computer format used. Submit a letter of recommendation by a professor who is familiar with the research of the author. Submit a 75-100 word author profile. Submit a $25.00 submission fee made payable in U.S. Funds.
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2) Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research: Founded 1996; Telephone (423) 756-2044
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4) Journal of Psychological Inquiry: Founded 1996; Contact Mark Ware, Psych. Dept., Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE 68178
Faculty Editorial Commentary
On behalf of the faculty and staff at JPBS, I am pleased to affirm that we are committed to providing undergraduates and graduates with a forum for their accomplishments resulting from the faculty-student relationship. The mission of JPBS remains to encourage students to submit their work for publication as an indicator of mastering essential skills necessary for professional career development. Our readers will note that the topical areas of the published manuscripts within this issue are varied. We emphasize that contributions from all areas of psychology will be accepted for consideration.
It is a pleasure to have been involved in the production of another outstanding issue of JPBS. Volume 12 of this journal features manuscripts addressing the limitations of the Myers-Briggs personality indicator, a variety of brain disorders treatable with carbamazepine, academic performance relations to sleep and stress, children's drawing as a projective measure, the use of deception in human mating patterns, two manuscripts exploring organizational climate and transformation, psychosocial factors in recovery from fatigue and two manuscripts addressing transpersonal theory development and application via exploring the writings of Ken Wilber. It is gratifying to welcome articles in the area of Transpersonal Psychology as they have not appeared in our journal in the past. It is outstanding that FDU students have transformed their course-related content and written about cutting-edge developmental theories such as those presented by Ken Wilber and Jenny Wade. Again, I encourage potential authors to submit their articles from every content area in psychology.
One aspect of JPBS which sets it apart from other journals publishing student contributions is the inclusion of a theme section. Volume 10 focused upon the efficacy of naltrexone (ReVia) as a potential treatment drug for alcoholism. Volume 11 focused upon the impact of nicotine-containing products and the detriment to world-wide health (435,000 Americans a year, and perhaps as many as 3 million people world-wide die prematurely from the consumption of nicotine-containing products). This issue focuses on the effects of methcathinone as a drug of abuse that can be synthesized using common household chemicals and a common cold-remedy medication (ephedrine). Unlike cocaine or opiates, the production of methcathinone does not suffer from the limitation of available supply from foreign-grown coca or opium fields. The effects of methcathinone are not significantly different from methamphetamine and its use in America is on the rise. We are pleased to present two manuscripts that address an overview and the status of animal research involving methcathinone.
Our next issue (JPBS Volume 13) will highlight the effects of caffeine which is the most consumed drug in the world. Caffeine is a low level stimulant drug and has been examined as a potential treatment medication for obesity and hyperactivity disorder. A future theme topic for our issue in the year 2000 will focus upon steroids as a major drug of abuse for the next century. We invite the submission of manuscripts that will interest and educate our readers on the hazards of caffeine and steroid addiction as well as their usefulness as potential pharmacological treatments for illness.
In closing, I take pleasure in thanking the student staff for their time and efforts to bringing this volume to fruition. I thank the FDU-Madison Campus Provost, Dr. Peter Falley, and Dean Martin Green for the commitment of resources and support. A special acknowledgement of thanks is for our Department Chair, Dr. Robert M. Chell & his wife Beverly. I also thank Mr. Gregory O. Buck, President (Penny Press, 6th Street Madison, NJ 07940; 973 966-9292) for applying his considerable publishing expertise to improve our journal presentation. Lastly, this journal serves as an outstanding example that students who do great work WILL realize their goal to become published.
 

Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D., Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience

JPBS CALL FOR PAPERS

PLEASE COPY AND POST/DISTRIBUTE

Salutations! The student editors of THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (JPBS), take great pride in soliciting manuscripts from undergraduate and graduate students who recognize the value of publishing in JPBS as an indicator of academic preparation. The mission of JPBS is to acknowledge the student-mentor relationship leading to publication. NOTE: We are one of the few journals that does not require a submission fee!
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JPBS is an annual periodical published by the Psychology Department of Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison, New Jersey. Review and contact of submitted manuscripts is the responsibility of our undergraduate and graduate journal student officers coordinated by the current student editor. Visit our web page at: <http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychweb>. Past volumes of articles in print (and copyrighted) are available for reading on our web page.
JPBS offers undergraduate and graduate students as well as faculty an opportunity to publish in a recognized academic journal. However, the student, and not the faculty mentor, must be the first author of any accepted submission. Manuscripts submitted by the first author who has earned a Ph.D. will be returned without review. JPBS is a student-run journal for students. Articles in ANY topical area of psychology are considered these include, but are not limited to:

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JPBS Volume 12, 1998

STUDENT OFFICERS
CO-EDITORS Katherine Ressman and John D. Panyko

STUDENT WEBSITE MANAGER Yahav Shoost

STUDENT REVIEWERS ( in no particular order)
Jane Cooper Mara Drozdowski Niketa Joshi John D. Panyko
Lauren J. Scher Robin L. Calcagnetti Katherine Ressman Jennifer Cobb
Robert S. Ross Christina Garzcynski Elizabeth N. Nissim Paul Humecky

INVITED REVIEWERS from Fairleigh Dickinson University
Diane Keyser-Wentworth, Ph.D., Lucy A. Quatrella, M. A,
Jennifer Siler, M. A. and Daniel Minsky

ART, GRAPHIC DESIGN & COMPUTER CONSULTANT Laura Duncan

FACULTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF (The Buck Stops Here) Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D.
 

DEADLINE FOR THE NEXT EDITION EARLY DECISION IS FEBRUARY 15 th

Submissions must be sent directly to our Faculty Editor-in-Chief:

Daniel J. Calcagnetti, JPBS Faculty Editor

Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison

Department of Psychology M-AB1-01

285 Madison Ave., Madison, NJ 07940

Phone: (973) 443-8974 Electronic mail: donalee@fdu.edu


JPBS is an annual periodical published by the Psychology Department of Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison, NJ. The review of manuscripts is the responsibility of our undergraduate and graduate journal student officers coordinated by the current student editors. Volume 12, published Summer 1998, Copyright&COPY; ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1998 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N.J. Permission for reproduction in whole or in part must be obtained directly in writing from the Faculty Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Daniel J. Calcagnetti. Our ISSN # is: 1061-6799; US copyright registration # for our past issue, Vol. 11, is on record. All JPBS text and correspondence were produced by a G3/266 Power Macintosh, thanks again Steve! The print font type is Arrus BT Roman, 9-14 point.


STUDY HABITS, SLEEP, STRESS AND PERFORMANCE

EFFICACY OF CHILDREN'S HUMAN FIGURE DRAWINGS

DECEPTIVE MATING PATTERNS

MATING DECEPTION PATTERNS

CLIMATE AND PERSONALITY

MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

RECOVERY FACTORS

WILBER'S DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL

EVERYDAY HERMENEUTICS

METHCATHINONE: HUMAN USE AND ABUSE

METHCATHINONE: ANIMAL RESEARCH FINDINGS

 


Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences,1998, Volume 12

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Any comments or questions? Please write to Dr. Donalee Brown at donalee@fdu.edu