The Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences - 1997
Volume 11, 1997
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Copyright 1997 by the Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham-Madison, N. J. Volume 11, published Summer, 1997. All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction in whole or part must be obtained from the Fairleigh Dickinson University Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940.
If you would like a copy of Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences, please send your name, address and $10.00 check (pay to: Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences) to:
Dr. Donalee Brown
JPBS Faculty Editor Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
Madison, NJ 07940
Phone: (973) 443-8974
Journal of Psychology
and the Behavioral Sciences
The Founding Student Managed Journal
for Student Research 1966-1997
Jacob van den Berg
Trish E. Seibel
Sharon A. Swift
Dana M. DeGaetano
Catherine P. Hoffman
John D. Panyko
Robert S. Ross
Trish E. Seibel
INVITED FACULTY REVIEWERS
Diane Keyser-Wentworth Ph.D. Fairleigh Dickinson University
Lucy A. Quatrella, M. A. Social Psychology Fairleigh Dickinson University
ART, GRAPHIC DESIGN & COMPUTER CONSULTANT
Daniel J. Calcagnetti,. Ph.D.
DEADLINE FOR THE NEXT EDITION EARLY DECISION IS FEBRUARY 15th
Submissions should be sent to our Faculty Editor-in Chief:
Daniel J. Calcagnetti, JPBS Faculty Editor
Fairleigh Dickinson University at Madison Department of Psychology M-AB1-01
285 Madison Ave., Madison, NJ 07940
Phone: (973) 443-8974
Faculty Editorial Commentary
This issue highlights our goal to provide a professional and attractive format for the Journal. We are committed to providing undergraduates and graduates with a forum to showcase their accomplishments as a result of the faculty-student relationship. The mission of JPBS remains to encourage students to submit their work for publication as an indicator of mastering essential skills necessary for professional career development. Our readers will note that the topical areas of the published manuscripts within this issue are varied. We emphasize that contributions from all areas of psychology will be accepted for consideration.
One aspect of JPBS that sets it apart from other journals that publish student contributions is the introduction of a theme section. This issue focuses on the effects of nicotine as a drug of abuse and, more recently, as a potential medication. The toll of nicotine-containing products on world-wide health care resources is staggering. It is estimated that 435,000 Americans and perhaps as many as 3 million people world wide die prematurely from the consumption of nicotine-containing products. This number of deaths dwarfs estimates for the number attributed to heroin, morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine and methcathinone combined. Clearly, profit motive regarding nicotine-containing products has hindered both those efforts to identify these products as toxins that require stricter regulation and the elevation of public awareness that nicotine is a primary addictive substance. The scientific evidence that nicotine activates brain mechanisms which regulate reinforcement, reward and compulsive behaviors is growing. The impact of second hand smoke as a massive source of environmental contamination is reflected in the unacceptable rates of health disorders wrought by exposure of infants and children to the smoking of one or more parents. Lastly, consider that all current forms of nicotine dependency treatment result in embarrassingly few persons who achieve nicotine-free status. The need for a deeper scientific understanding of nicotine dependency and for effective treatments for nicotine dependency has never been greater. For those psychologists that consider the discipline of psychology as a "healing art," I ask that you identify nicotine dependency study as an area requiring your best efforts to help reduce human suffering.
Our next issue (JPBS Volume 12) will focus on a drug of abuse that can be synthesized using common household chemicals and a common cold-remedy medication (ephedrine) called methcathinone (streetnames: Cat, Jeff and Goob). Clearly, the production of methcathinone does not suffer like cocaine or opiates from limitation of available supply from foreign-grown coca or opium fields. Methcathinone rivals the effects of methamphetamine and its use in America is on the rise. We invite submission of manuscripts that will interest and educate our readers on the future hazards and potential treatments of methcathinone addiction.
In closing, I thank the student staff for their time and efforts in bringing this issue to print as well as the co-editors for attending the Eastern Psychological Association and presenting how students can best achieve publication. I also thank our Department Chair, Dr. Robert M. Chell and FDU-Madison Campus Provost, Dr. Peter Falley, for their generous commitment of resources and support.
Daniel J. Calcagnetti, Ph.D.
Coordinator of Behavioral Neuroscience
Psychology Department Florham-Madison
JPBS Volume 11, 1997
Visit our web page at http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychweb/
- 1 Rehabilitation of Social Behavior Deficits Resulting from Brain Trauma Robert F. Morrell, Illinois Institute of Technology
- 5 The Relationship Between Coping Styles and Physiological Responses to Stress in African Americans John Oliver, Kenneth Whitaker, Douglas Ceaser, Vernessa R. Clark, Shaunta Clark 1 & Blessed Chuksorji 2, Morehouse College, Clark Atlanta Univ.1, Spelman College 2
- 11 Factors Affecting Coping in African Americans Blessed Chuksorji 2, Shaunta Clark 1, John Oliver, Kenneth Whitaker and Vernessa R. Clark, Morehouse College, Clark Atlanta Univ. 1, Spelman College2
- 17 The Relationship Between Coping Behaviors and Assessed Introversion - Extraversion Karrie Sanders and Robert L. Schalock, Hastings College
- 22 High and Low Facilitators to Test Anxiety: Do They Differ in Measures of Performance Anxiety Towards Statistics? Carmille Johnson and Sandra Sgoutas, University of San Diego
- 30 Differences in the Family Roles and Personalities of Adult Children of Alcoholics Michelle Morrison, Mount Saint Mary's College
- 39 Characteristics of Male Batters Who Were Court Ordered to Attend an Intervention Program Katherine L. Applegate and Michale J. Marshall, West Liberty State College
- 46 Weight-Bearing Exercise and Bone-Mass: An Unsettled Issue for Preventative Health Psychology Jessica Melamed and R. Sergio Guglielmi, Lake Forest College
- 55 Natural Plant Hallucinogen profiles: A Functional BibliographyChristopher A. Raad 1, Sonja A. Kaderly 2 and Daniel J. Calcagnetti 1 Fairleigh Dickinson University 1 and University of Kansas 2
69 The Health Belief Model and Worksite Smoking Cessation Mary C. Stockton, Susan D. McMahon and Leonard A. Jason, DePaul University
(Theme Section Focus on Nicotine: Dependence, Treatment and as a Medication)
- 80 Nicotine an Addictive Substance: Brain Reward and Reinforcement Evidence Carolee A. Kallmann, Fairleigh Dickinson University
- 88 Increased Risks Associated with Nicotine Withdrawal Ilene Skulsky, Fairleigh Dickinson University
- 95 Assessment of Nicotine Replacement Therapies Roman Zaboronek II, Fairleigh Dickinson University
- 102 Nicotine and its Effect on Ulcerative Colitis Mark A. Faccibene, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Rehabilitation of Social Behavior Deficits Resulting from Brain Trauma
Robert F. Morrell
Illinois Institute of Technology
Brain injury often causes deficits in memory, attention, coordination, emotional expression, and social behavior. This manuscript discusses head injury deficits and the rehabilitation of those deficits. The focus is on techniques specific to rehabilitation of interpersonal behavior and social skills deficits. Research on various techniques is reviewed and limitations are noted. Future research needs are suggested. Author Note Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Robert F. Morrell, 15326 South Lakeside Road, Three Oaks, MI 49128.
The Relationship Between Coping Styles and Physiological Responses to Stress in African Americans
John Oliver, Kenneth Whitaker, Douglas Ceaser, Vernessa R. Clark, Shaunta Clark1 and Blessed Chuksorji2
Morehouse College, Clark Atlanta University1 and Spelman College2
The current study examined the relationship between 3 coping styles and cardiovascular reactivity to emotionally arousing stimuli. The coping styles employed were Black Nationalism, hostility, and anger expression. Measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output were taken as the participants watched 2 racist scenes on videotape. The participants were then given 3 questionnaires: the Black Nationalism Scale, the Cook and Medley Hostility Scale, and the Spielberger Anger Expression Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the ability of the coping styles to predict heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output responses to the racist stimuli. Analyses of the data revealed that the Black Nationalism Scale significantly predicted diastolic blood pressure responses to the stimuli.
Factors Affecting Coping in African-Americans
Blessed Chuksorji1, Shaunta Clark2, John Oliver, Kenneth Whitaker, Ayannah Brewer, and Vernessa R. Clark
Spelman College1, Clark Atlanta University2 , Morehouse College
Hostility, anger expression, and Black Nationalism were measured in 30 older (26-52) and 30 younger (18-23) African-American males and females. It was hypothesized that older African- Americans exhibit higher levels of Black Nationalism and experience anger provoking situations less often. It was hypothesized that female participants would control their anger more often than males and males would be more hostile, express anger outwardly, and experience more anger provoking situations. All participants were given the Cook and Medley Hostility Scale, the Spielberger Anger Expression Scale and the Black Nationalism Scale. The results showed females scoring significantly higher on the Collective/Socialism dimension of the Black Nationalism Scale than their male counterparts. Younger males scored significantly higher than older males on the Anger-out subscale.
The Relationship Between Coping Behaviors and Assessed Introversion - Extraversion
Karrie Sanders and Robert L. Schalock
The relations between coping behaviors and assessed introversion-extraversion were examined in 53 college students. It is hypothesized that coping styles (problem solving, use of positive coping skills, social support, avoidance, self-blame, and wishful thinking) would be correlated to dominant personality trait(s). The participants were given a modified version of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) and a survey of 6 coping behaviors. Results indicate that, while introversion-extraversion is not significantly correlated to all coping skills, introversion - extraversion proved to be a significant factor (p < .05) when related to problem solving abilities and seeking social support.
Author Note Author for correspondence: Ms. Karrie Sanders, 2212 27th Avenue Court, Greeley, CO 80631. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
High and Low Facilitators to Test Anxiety: Do They Differ in Measures of Performance and Anxiety Toward Statistics?
Camille Joy Johnson and Sandra A. Sgoutas-Emch
University of San Diego
In general, students claim anxiety towards a subject matter or an exam hinders their abilities. The present study compares high and low test anxiety facilitators across performance during a statistics course as well as psychological and physiological responses during an exam. Our data show that the group labeled as the high facilitators (HF) performed significantly better across all the exams in the class and the overall course grade. Also, the HF rated their perceived performance as significantly higher than the low facilitators (LF) although both groups rated the perceived difficulty of the exams equally. No significant group differences were seen in either state anxiety or salivary cortisol levels before and after an exam. These results suggest that although HF/LF may not differ across levels of anxiety during an exam, those individuals labeled as high facilitators clearly perform better when under an anxiety-provoking situation.
Author Note Camille Joy Johnson received her B.A. in Psychology from the University of San Diego and is currently working on a master's degree in clinical psychology. Sandra A. Sgoutas-Emch, Ph.D., received her M.S. and Ph.D. from the U. of Georgia in Biopsychology and completed a two year NIH postdoctoral fellowship at Ohio State University. She is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of San Diego.We would like to give special thanks to Dr. Demetrios Sgoutas, Directory of Emory University Hospital Clinical Laboratories, who generously volunteered his laboratory for the salivary cortisol analysis. In addition, we would also like to thank Margaret Hammarstrom for her invaluable assistance in performing the salivary cortisol analysis.This study was supported in part by a faculty research grant from the University of San Diego. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Camille Joy Johnson, 1801 Creason Drive, Apt. 9, Bowling Green, KY 42101, email: email@example.com, (502) 793-0374.
Differences in the Family Roles and Personalities of Adult Children of Alcoholics
Mount Saint Mary's College
This study investigated Wegscheider's theory that children of alcoholics have acquired, through birth order, different family roles and personalities than children from non-alcoholic families. Because this idea lacked empirical support, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of children of alcoholics would not be due to birth order. Participants included 31 children of alcoholics and 46 controls; the ages ranged from 18 to 78. Each subject completed 12 personality scales to assess Wegscheider's theory. Participants from non-alcoholic families scored significantly higher on Achievement Motivation and Social Desirability. No significant differences for birth order effects were observed. Wegscheider's theory did not receive support.
Author Note: Please e-mail all correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Characteristics of Male Batterers Who Were Court Ordered to Attend an Intervention Program
Katherine L. Applegate and Michael J. Marshall
West Liberty State College
Male batterers who were court ordered to attend a treatment program for domestic violence were compared with a representative control group obtained from the same geographic location. A general model of predictors for domestic violence is examined along with an experimental model of predictors derived from data in this study. In a multiple regression analysis of the general model, the following variables were significant: income level, alcohol use, and witnessing abuse between parents as a child (R2 = .354, p < .001). Reported unsatisfactory home life because of own substance use, age, alcohol use, and violence in a previous relationship were significant with the experimental model (R2 = .443, p < .001). Differences between the models and areas for future research on domestic violence are discussed.
Author Note Katherine L. Applegate,is now at the Department of Psychology, Ohio State University); Michael J. Marshall, Ph.D., Department of Psychology. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Katherine L. Applegate, Clinical-Room 142, Townshend Hall, Department of Psychology, 185 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210.
Weight-Bearing Exercise and Bone Mass: An Unsettled Issue for Preventive Health Psychology
Jessica Melamed and R. Sergio Guglielmi
Lake Forest College
This paper reviews a number of studies that have examined the effects of weight-beaning exercise on bone mass. Studies (5) are correlational in nature, and the remaining 10 are clinical trials. Some of the clinical trials are multiple treatment studies which typically look at the effect on bone mass of various therapeutic approaches, such as calcium intake and estrogen replacement independently, as well as in combination with exercise. Other clinical trials limit their focus to the effects of exercise alone. Studies reviewed (10 of the 15) support the hypothesis that exercise helps to maintain or increase bone mass. The patterns of results are discussed in the context of methodological strengths and weaknesses of the research reviewed. Ways in which future studies could correct the problems identified in this literature are suggested, and a methodological shift in health psychology research is recommended.
Author to contact for all correspondence to: R. Sergio Guglielmi, Ph.D. Department of Psychology, Hotchkiss Hall, Lake Forest College, 555 North Sheridan Road, Lake Forest, IL 60045-2399; email: email@example.com.
Natural Plant Hallucinogen Profiles: A Functional Bibliography
Invited statement by Mr. Christopher A. Raad
As first author of the following publication, I was asked by the JPBS student staff to include a statement addressing the issue of why Dr. Calcagnetti's name appears as 3rd author on this manuscript. At first, one might conclude that Dr. C is a very self-serving fellow as his name appears on a manuscript in a journal for which he serves as Faculty Editor.
This conclusion is simply in error.
All manuscripts submitted to JPBS are reviewed blind to authors and institution of origin. Each manuscript succeeds or fails based upon the merits of the research, presentation and contribution to our discipline. Once this manuscript achieved acceptance and authorship became known, some staff members suggested excluding his name. I wrote the student staff to argue in favor of including Dr. C as an author for two major reasons. First, I explained that this work was completed prior to his assuming the role of Faculty Editor.
Second, I feel that his encouragement and contributions to this honors project represents a clear tribute to the JPBS mission... to promote student-mentor relationships leading to publication. Thus, in the tradition of Dr. D. C. Schiffman (the first JPBS Faculty Editor who sponsored all 5 of the FDU honors manuscripts in the original 1966 issue), I am pleased that Dr. C is acknowledged as a co-author on this manuscript, anything less would be a blatant omission of the synergy needed for this work to be conceived and completed.
Clearly, Dr. C promotes the mission of JPBS globally by nurturing this Journal so students from other institutions can become published and locally by his contributions that helped this project achieve publishable quality. In short, Dr. C talks the talk AND he walks the walk.
Natural Plant Hallucinogen Profiles: A Functional Bibliography
Christopher A. Raad1, Sonja A. Kaderly 2 and Daniel J. Calcagnetti1
Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University1
Department of Botany, University of Kansas2
A bibliography of natural plant hallucinogens including sources and psychoactive effects is provided. Library resources (including computer search using key words) as well as secondary texts have allowed the identification of several plant products that have been reported to produce hallucinatory effects in humans. A list of these botanical sources of hallucinogenic compounds comprises the core of this work (each plant is identified by its common name and scientific name).
The rationale for this work is two-fold. The first rationale stems from the works of the highly-acclaimed neuroscientist, Dr. Floyd Bloom, whom has written at length regarding directions for improving our understanding of the brain in the age of the ever-expanding electronic medium (Bloom, 1992). Dr. Bloom has suggested that researchers need to have ready access to key information by way of building a data base and the computerization of this information for greater accessibility for scientists and the general public. It was this need that prompted this project. One goal of this work is to stimulate interest and, ultimately, further research in hallucinogens. Studying botanical sources of such hallucinogenic compounds and their psychoactive effects, which despite having the potential to provide much valuable information on both the inner workings of the brain as well as the nature on human consciousness itself, has been a rather neglected area of research. (for a review of recent developments in this field, see Lukoff, Zanger, & Lu, 1990). A readily accessible electronic functional bibliography is a step to stem the current tide of neglect to this field of study.
A second rationale for the importance of this work is to facilitate greater understanding of hallucinogenic substances. Such academic study falls into the discipline of psychopharmacology, a contraction of psychology (the study of behavior) and pharmacology (the study of drug actions). Possibly the first known use of the term "psychopharmacology" was suggested in 1548 by Reinhard Lorichius in his Psychoparmakon, hoc est Medicina Animae. However, the historical origins are much older and ominous. It has been suggested that in about 600 B. C., groups of mentally ill and physically afflicted humans (e.g. Individuals afflicted with leprosy & psychosis) were housed in sheds near the main gates of large Greek cities. During times of plague, selected unfortunates were stoned to death in the marketplace in order to appease the Gods. These sacrificed individuals were referred to as the pharmakos meaning the cure for public ills. By analogy, this term was also used to refer to herbs that cured the body and became know as drugs or medicines. The pharmakos not only meant to cure but also meant to poison. One explanation for this dual meaning can be explained by the fact that substances used to cure ills can also kill given a high enough dose. This was the context in which the word pharmacology emerged (Palfai & Jankiewicz, 1991).
The word psychology is also of Greek origin, from psyche meaning the mind or soul. Psychologists since the 1930s have rejected the non-scientific terms mind or soul. They opted to focus on the results of mindful activities. Hence, psychology is now defined as the study of behavior and mental activity. The term hallucination comes from the Latin lucinatio meaning "to dream or wander in the mind." One definition of hallucination is a perception in the absence of an actual external sensory stimuli. This differs from an illusion as an illusion is sensory perception arising from an external stimulus.
The interdisciplinary study of psychopharmacology, has given rise to very specialized research disciplines called archeopsychopharmacology and ethnopsychopharmacology (Lukoff, Zanger, & Lu, 1990). The research methodologies of archeopsychopharmacology rely on the study of ancient artifacts, including iconographs (pyramids, carvings, cave walls drawings, and clay tablets) as well as texts (Vendenta, 5000 year old Hindu books). This approach began in 1968 when petroglyphs found in North Africa were believed to indicate the existence of a 12,000 year-old mushroom cult. Results of studying these artifacts suggested that Amanita muscaria mushrooms were the psychoactive ingredient in the potion known as Soma. Clearly, hallucinogenic substances have played a large role in ancient shamanistic healing and ceremonial practices. However, this study of understanding the role of psychoactive substances in early religious and tribal life is the domain of ethnopsychopharmacology.
Drugs that produce hallucinations (often referred to as phantasicants) included in this "functional bibliography" essentially fall into seven major chemical classes (Hoffman, 1959):
1) Indole derivatives of tryptamine (an amino acid), including the lysergic acid alkaloids, psilocybin and the harmala alkaloids
2) Phenylethylamines (e.g., mescaline)
3) Phenylpropenes (e.g., myristicin)
4) Isoxazoles (e.g., muscimol and ibotenic acid)
5) Tropanes (e.g., scopolamine)
6) Quinolizidines (e.g., cryogenine)
7) Dibenzopyrans (cannabinoids).
Hallucinogens can be classified into two groups designated as the major and minor phantasicants. The major phantasicants include such compounds as lysergic acid diethylamine-25 (LSD-25), mescaline, psilocybin, marijuana and myristicin (a relative of mescaline found in nutmeg). The minor phantasicants include compounds such as amphetamine, cocaine, and opium. Criteria for being included as a minor phantasicant are based upon hallucinations that occur following an overdose. For this reason, the minor phantasicants are not considered true hallucinogens and are thus not included in this functional bibliography.
One of the first modern researchers to study mescaline-induced hallucinations in a systematic manner was Heinrich Kluver at the University of Chicago. His findings (Kluver, 1928) focused upon participants reporting that psychoactive experiences proceeded in two general phases. Phase One yields a surprisingly similar consensus of seeing geometric images accompanied by altered feelings. For example, participants reported "I feel like I am flying". There were four consistent geometric images reported: 1) a lattice or grating; 2) a cobweb structure; 3) a tunnel or funnel alley; and, lastly, 4) spiral images. Though colors varied, participants consistently reported brightness intensification. Moreover, the apparent size, geometrical shapes, and symmetry were strikingly similar from participant to participant (Kluver, 1928).
Other researchers (e.g., Timothy Leary & Ronald K. Siegel) tested participants that had been trained to report second to second details of their visual hallucinations induced by LSD-25 and mescaline (Siegel & Jarvik, 1975).
Using a specialized 20 key typewriter, participants were trained to give an average of 20 reports per min (Leary, 1966). Untrained participants reported 5 per min over a typical 6 hr observation period. The most commonly reported experiences included eight types of forms (lines, curves, webs, lattices, tunnels, spirals, kaleidoscopes, and random images), eight colors (violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red, white, and black), and eight movements (vertical, horizontal, oblique, explosive, concentric, rotational, pulsating, and aimless).
Siegel (1977) reports that 62-72% of 500 participants tested with LSD reported similar simple forms at low doses. Also, 72% reported religious symbols and images; 49% reported small animals and humans. Images tended to pulsate and move toward a center tunnel or away from a bright center (a phenomenon similar to reported near death experiences). Unlike psilocybin-induced hallucination, these visions could not be consciously controlled.
Phase Two occurs at higher doses and can be called a literal phase involving complex images with personal import, images from memory, and religious icons. At this point, the hallucination becomes reality for the user. At these higher doses, trained observers reported that their hallucinations were real ("I am flying"; Kluver, 1928). Perceptual changes at high doses occurred at a rate of 10 per s and participants frequently reported feeling dissociated from their bodies.
Early claims that these substances damage chromosomes and lead to prolonged psychosis have not been substantiated (Leavitt, 1982). However, hallucinogens do have a few side-effects. For example, the use of LSD-25 has been found to be related to deficits in visual functioning, including a reduced ability to detect a flickering light and decreased sensitivity to light during dark adaptation (Abraham & Wolf, 1988), also referred to as Post Hallucinogen Sensory Disorder (PHSD). Another side-effect of hallucinogen use is the well-publicized, but infrequently occurring, flashback. Flashbacks are characterized by the spontaneously occurring memories in drug-free users wherein they relive previous hallucinogenic experiences.
It should be noted that flashbacks are not a result of the pharmacological action of the drug or its metabolites; nor has any neurological damage been discovered which could account for this phenomenon. Instead, flashbacks are psychological in nature; these spontaneous memories are triggered by environmental stimuli which are similar to those that were present during the initial trip (Siegel, 1992).
Although a complete understanding of all the mechanisms of action for hallucinogens remains to be discovered, one important finding is that Risperidone (R64-766, a serotonin receptor type 2 (prefrontal cortex) and dopamine receptor antagonist) attenuates or blocks hallucinations. Risperidone has been has been demonstrated to be an LSD-25 antagonist (blocker) in rats (ED50 = 0.028 mg/kg) using stimulus discrimination testing (Meert, Haes, & Janssen, 1989). This discovery may provide emergency ward clinicians with the capability to counteract adverse reactions to this drug. Moreover, the finding opens up the possibility of a further understanding of how LSD-25 and related hallucinogens exert their effect on the user's neurochemistry.
Explanation of the Bibliography
Despite the considerable knowledge amassed about these drugs, establishing an exact criterion for inclusion in the category of major hallucinogens is difficult. One obstacle to classifying these drugs is that the subjective effects produced in the user often cannot be put into everyday language. Various definitions have been given (e.g., Hoffer & Osmond, 1967; Hollister, 1968). Even the name hallucinogen is far from universally accepted as being an accurate description of these drugs (Psychedelic, psychotomimetic, and psycholytic are probably the most commonly used alternatives). In 1938, Albert Hofmann (1959) became first person to synthesize (from the alkaloids of the ergot fungus) LSD-25. He has named the following characteristics to be apparent in a hallucinogenic induced state: profound and acute changes in the perception of space and time; possible depersonalization; though retaining full consciousness, the experience of a dream-world which often appears to be "more real" than the normal world; objects and colors appear more brilliant, losing their symbolic character and seeming to possess their own "more intense existence". Hofmann also points out that hallucinations per se do not necessarily occur and, if they do, only at higher doses with predisposed individuals in the correct environment. Botanical sources of compounds that, upon ingestion by humans, produce the above-mentioned effects will meet the general criteria for inclusion in this bibliography of natural plant hallucinogens.
Plants which are included have been grouped by the chemical structure of its most important psychoactive ingredient(s). Doing so yields 7 major classes: Indoles, Phenylethylamines, Phenylpropenes, Tropanes, Isoxazoles, Quinolizidines and the Dibenzopyrans, each possessing general characteristics shared by the members of its group (for information about the synthesis of hallucinogenic compounds, see Smith, 1981). The first six classes also share some common characteristics.
Unlike the Dibenzopyrans (which are discussed below), these compounds contain nitrogen. Note that the Phenylpropenes are an exception to this last statement. However, these compounds are the naturally occurring precursors to the methoxylated amphetamines analogues, which are nitrogen containing Phenylethylamines (similar in structure to dopamine and norepinephrine). This appears to be a major factor in the pharmacological properties of these substances (Schultes & Hofmann, 1980).
The Indoles (similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin) and the Phenylethylamines are the two classes which could be called the classic hallucinogens; their psychoactive effects most easily fit the criterion of hallucinogenic. These classes contain the best-known drugs of this category (e.g., LSD-25 and psilocybin are Indoles; mescaline is a Phenylethylamine). Also, the indoles and phenylethylamines are physically the safest of the hallucinogens; lethal overdosage or other serious medical complications from the use of these drugs are rare. Interestingly, despite their differences in chemical structure, the Indoles and Phenylethylamines appear to have some common serotonin receptor type 2 (5HT2) mechanisms of action as well as being cross-tolerant with each other (Ray & Ksir, 1993). The sub-types of the Indoles, the most potent of the hallucinogens, are the ergot alkaloids, the tryptamines, the harmala alkaloids, the iboga alkaloids, and yohimbine. As stated above, the Phenylpropenes are precursors to mescaline-related Phenylethylamines such as 3,4 methylenedioxyphenyl-isopropylamine (MDA) and its analogues (Stafford, 1983).
The Isoxazoles and Tropanes both induce side-effects which are considerably more unpleasant than either the Indoles or the Phenylethylamines. Moreover, their psychoactive effects do not fit as neatly into the above-given criteria for being considered hallucinogens. Still, these substances do produce distortions in perception and thought which could be considered hallucinogenic and have been used ritually by various cultures for, among other reasons, these properties. The mechanism of action of the Isoxazoles is even less clear than those of the other hallucinogens, although it appears that they can act as an agonist at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The primary pharmacological effect of the Tropanes, which are the most toxic group in this functional bibliography, is to occupy the acetylcholine receptor, blocking the transmission of muscarinic cholinergic neurons (Ray & Ksir, 1993).
The nitrogenous Quinolizidines have not been the subject of research as often as the compounds in the other classes. For one pharmacological study of Quinolizidines see Kaplan and Malone (1966). As stated earlier, the Dibenzopyrans, which are the main psychoactive ingredients in marijuana, do not contain nitrogen. Their psychoactive effects differ considerably from the other hallucinogens; the Denzopyrans induce a stronger sensation of euphoria while the hallmark characteristics of hallucinogenic experiences (e.g., alterations in consciousness and hallucinations) are less pronounced (Schultes & Hofmann, 1980). These differences, along with the fact that the Denzopyrans possess no chemical-structural relationships with any known neurotransmitter, had suggested to researchers that the mechanism of action of these compounds was much different than that of the nitrogen-containing hallucinogens. This was found to be the case as cannibinoid receptors were discovered first in the rat brain (Deveane, Dysarz, Johnson, Melvin, & Howlett, 1988) and, then, in humans (Herkenham, Lynn, Little, Johnson, Melvin, DeCosta, & Rice, 1990).
Another aspect of this functional bibliography which is in need of an explanation is that, in some cases, many hallucinogenic plants have been lumped together under one entry. For example, the psilocybin-containing mushrooms, which number a few dozen species from over a half dozen locations, were given only one entry (see Tryptamines of this bibliography) instead of being listed separately. This was done in the effort to avoid creating many entries with repetitive information. (In the case of the psilocybin-containing mushrooms, they all have the same psychoactive ingredient, physical and psychological effects, etc.) In other cases (e.g., the Mescaline sub-category), additional sources of similar psychoactive substances have been added at the conclusion of the listing of a particular category or sub-category.
Finally, it should be noted that the following list of hallucinogenic plants is by no means exhaustive. The authors readily acknowledge the incompleteness of this work, for instance, there are a number of plants whose inclusion in this functional bibliography was viewed as questionable. The psychoactive substances contained in such plants induce physiological and psychological effects which did not adequately meet the set criteria for being considered hallucinogenic. Moreover, there are many botanical sources of compounds which are or have been reported to be hallucinogenic about which vital pieces of information (such as psychoactive ingredient, specific psychoactive effects, etc.) are presently unknown. A partial list of some of these plants is located after the last entry of the functional bibliography (for additional probable and alleged botanical sources of hallucinogenic compounds can be found in, see Schultes & Hofmann, 1980). Indeed, this bibliography was created with the intention of generating interest and, eventually, further research in this area. If this work leads other researchers to further our understanding of these hallucinogenic compounds, then one major goal of this work will be realized.
This manuscript provides the following information about each natural plant hallucinogen: a) Source: the general type of botanical source and geographical area to which it is native. b) Psychoactive ingredient(s): the chemical compound(s) responsible for the plant's hallucinogenic effects. c) Regions and groups of traditional consumption: the peoples (and their location) who have historically used the particular hallucinogenic plant. d) Physical effects: the physiological changes induced by the particular hallucinogenic compound(s) contained in the plants. e) Psychoactive effects: the subjective perceptual changes induced by the hallucinogenic compound(s) contained in the plant. f) Method of administration: the most common mean(s) of ingesting the particular psychoactive substance. Lastly, 10 illustrations are included as examples of various types of natural plant hallucinogens in Figure 1.
Author to whom correspondence and requests should be addressed: Mr. Chris Raad C/O Dr. D. Calcagnetti, FDU, Psychology Dept. M060A, 285 Madison Ave. Madison, NJ 07940
We thank Fairleigh Dickinson University Professors Allison Cagnetta and Gary D. Jaworski, Ph.D., their editorial comments and suggestions invaluably contributed to this text. We also thank Ms. Sara Tallaferro, University of Kansas, Botany Department for her expert artistic plant illustration skills.
The Health Belief Model and Worksite Smoking Cessation
Mary C. Stockton, Susan D. McMahon, and Leonard A. Jason
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychosocial framework for understanding and predicting health enhancing behavior. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the major components of the HBM: perceived susceptibility to smoking-related illnesses, perceived severity of smoking-related illnesses, barriers to quitting, benefits of taking action, and cues to action. Findings from this study suggest that a broad theoretical focus which integrates variables from a variety of approaches may facilitate our understanding of cessation and long-term abstinence from smoking.
Address correspondence to: Ms. Mary C. Stockton, DePaul University, Department of Psychology, 2219 N. Kenmore, Chicago, Illinois 60614-7887.
Nicotine an Addictive Substance: Brain Reward and Reinforcement Evidence
Carolee A. Kallmann
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Nicotine is a drug of abuse responsible for over 400,000 deaths annually in the United States due primarily to lung cancer, stroke or cardiovascular disease. Research reveals that nicotine is a drug whose pharmacologic and behavioral processes contribute to compulsive tobacco use. The brain mechanism of action of nicotine has much in common with other drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine. This work addresses the brain mechanism of action underlying the reinforcing and rewarding of nicotine that may provide insights to develop efficacious treatments.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mrs. Carolee Kallmann. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Fax 201 534-1994
Increased Risks Associated With Smoking Cessation
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Depression and anxiety are symptoms that smokers may try to alleviate by using nicotine containing products such as tobacco that may lead to dependence. Ironically, once humans try to become nicotine-free, attempts to quit smoking may increase the risk of developing depression and anxiety. People with a history of major depression may be at increased risk of developing severe depression which may well persist beyond the nicotine withdrawal period. Physicians and psychiatrists are increasing their efforts to encourage their patients to quit smoking by offering them nicotine patches, antidepressants and anxiolytics. While antidepressants and anxiolytics help many with withdrawal symptoms, cravings and dysphoric mood, doctors need to be aware that these medications may actually hinder cessation efforts in some smokers. The objective of this work is to examine 3 studies that investigated smoking cessation in relation to depression and anxiety.
Assessment of Nicotine Replacement Therapies
Roman Zaboronek II
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Nicotine dependence is an insidious, non-discriminatory disease that significantly contributes to the premature deaths of over 400,000 Americans a year. At present, the addictiveness of nicotine is high and treatments are relatively unsuccessful. The purpose of this work is to examine assessment of the nicotine replacement therapies in the context of relapse reduction for the individual. Also discussed are influencing factors of depression, cost-effectiveness, and weight gain. Examining these 3 concept allows a clearer assessment of current nicotine replacement therapies.
Nicotine and its Effect on Ulcerative Colitis
Mark A. Faccibene
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Ulcerative colitis is a disease in which smoking appears to confer some benefit. Current research on nicotine therapy for ulcerative colitis is examined. In particular there are 2 research projects, a study of transdermal nicotine's effect on active disease in conjunction with mesalamine (anti-colitis medication) and a study of transdermal nicotine's efficacy as maintenance therapy for disease in remission. A final case study discusses nicotine chewing gum and its effect on maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis in a woman with chronic emphysema. Possible reasons for efficacy or lack of efficacy are discussed as well as implications for further research and treatment.
Author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed: Mr. Mark A. Faccibene, The Pride Institute, C/O Carrier Foundation. P. O. Box 147, Belle Mead, NJ 08502-0147.
Any comments or questions? Please write to Dr. Donalee Brown at email@example.com